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Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Infection Leads to an Enhanced RNA Interference Response and Not Its Suppression in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris

1
Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Karyn Johnson
Viruses 2016, 8(12), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8120334
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
RNA interference (RNAi) is the primary antiviral defense system in insects and its importance for pollinator health is indisputable. In this work, we examined the effect of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection on the RNAi process in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, and whether the presence of possible functional viral suppressors could alter the potency of the host’s immune response. For this, a two-fold approach was used. Through a functional RNAi assay, we observed an enhancement of the RNAi system after IAPV infection instead of its suppression, despite only minimal upregulation of the genes involved in RNAi. Besides, the presence of the proposed suppressor 1A and the predicted OrfX protein in IAPV could not be confirmed using high definition mass spectrometry. In parallel, when bumblebees were infected with cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), known to encode a suppressor of RNAi, no increase in RNAi efficiency was seen. For both viruses, pre-infection with the one virus lead to a decreased replication of the other virus, indicating a major effect of competition. These results are compelling in the context of Dicistroviridae in multi-virus/multi-host networks as the effect of a viral infection on the RNAi machinery may influence subsequent virus infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Israeli acute paralysis virus; cricket paralysis virus; RNA interference (RNAi); viral suppressors of RNAi; Bombus terrestris; bee health Israeli acute paralysis virus; cricket paralysis virus; RNA interference (RNAi); viral suppressors of RNAi; Bombus terrestris; bee health
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Cappelle, K.; Smagghe, G.; Dhaenens, M.; Meeus, I. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Infection Leads to an Enhanced RNA Interference Response and Not Its Suppression in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Viruses 2016, 8, 334.

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