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Serro 2 Virus Highlights the Fundamental Genomic and Biological Features of a Natural Vaccinia Virus Infecting Humans

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Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CCID/CDC), Atlanta, 30329-4027 GA, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP 31270-901, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joanna Parish
Viruses 2016, 8(12), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8120328
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been implicated in infections of dairy cattle and humans, and outbreaks have substantially impacted local economies and public health in Brazil. During a 2005 outbreak, a VACV strain designated Serro 2 virus (S2V) was collected from a 30-year old male milker. Our aim was to phenotypically and genetically characterize this VACV Brazilian isolate. S2V produced small round plaques without associated comets when grown in BSC40 cells. Furthermore, S2V was less virulent than the prototype strain VACV-Western Reserve (WR) in a murine model of intradermal infection, producing a tiny lesion with virtually no surrounding inflammation. The genome of S2V was sequenced by primer walking. The coding region spans 184,572 bp and contains 211 predicted genes. Mutations in envelope genes specifically associated with small plaque phenotypes were not found in S2V; however, other alterations in amino acid sequences within these genes were identified. In addition, some immunomodulatory genes were truncated in S2V. Phylogenetic analysis using immune regulatory-related genes, besides the hemagglutinin gene, segregated the Brazilian viruses into two clusters, grouping the S2V into Brazilian VACV group 1. S2V is the first naturally-circulating human-associated VACV, with a low passage history, to be extensively genetically and phenotypically characterized. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccinia virus; genome; virulence; outbreak; poxvirus; public health vaccinia virus; genome; virulence; outbreak; poxvirus; public health
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Trindade, G.D.S.; Emerson, G.L.; Sammons, S.; Frace, M.; Govil, D.; Fernandes Mota, B.E.; Abrahão, J.S.; De Assis, F.L.; Olsen-Rasmussen, M.; Goldsmith, C.S.; Li, Y.; Carroll, D.; Guimarães da Fonseca, F.; Kroon, E.; Damon, I.K. Serro 2 Virus Highlights the Fundamental Genomic and Biological Features of a Natural Vaccinia Virus Infecting Humans. Viruses 2016, 8, 328.

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