Serro 2 Virus Highlights the Fundamental Genomic and Biological Features of a Natural Vaccinia Virus Infecting Humans
AbstractVaccinia virus (VACV) has been implicated in infections of dairy cattle and humans, and outbreaks have substantially impacted local economies and public health in Brazil. During a 2005 outbreak, a VACV strain designated Serro 2 virus (S2V) was collected from a 30-year old male milker. Our aim was to phenotypically and genetically characterize this VACV Brazilian isolate. S2V produced small round plaques without associated comets when grown in BSC40 cells. Furthermore, S2V was less virulent than the prototype strain VACV-Western Reserve (WR) in a murine model of intradermal infection, producing a tiny lesion with virtually no surrounding inflammation. The genome of S2V was sequenced by primer walking. The coding region spans 184,572 bp and contains 211 predicted genes. Mutations in envelope genes specifically associated with small plaque phenotypes were not found in S2V; however, other alterations in amino acid sequences within these genes were identified. In addition, some immunomodulatory genes were truncated in S2V. Phylogenetic analysis using immune regulatory-related genes, besides the hemagglutinin gene, segregated the Brazilian viruses into two clusters, grouping the S2V into Brazilian VACV group 1. S2V is the first naturally-circulating human-associated VACV, with a low passage history, to be extensively genetically and phenotypically characterized. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
DOCX-Document (DOCX, 1285 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Trindade, G.S.; Emerson, G.L.; Sammons, S.; Frace, M.; Govil, D.; Fernandes Mota, B.E.; Abrahão, J.S.; de Assis, F.L.; Olsen-Rasmussen, M.; Goldsmith, C.S.; Li, Y.; Carroll, D.; Guimarães da Fonseca, F.; Kroon, E.; Damon, I.K. Serro 2 Virus Highlights the Fundamental Genomic and Biological Features of a Natural Vaccinia Virus Infecting Humans. Viruses 2016, 8, 328.
Trindade GS, Emerson GL, Sammons S, Frace M, Govil D, Fernandes Mota BE, Abrahão JS, de Assis FL, Olsen-Rasmussen M, Goldsmith CS, Li Y, Carroll D, Guimarães da Fonseca F, Kroon E, Damon IK. Serro 2 Virus Highlights the Fundamental Genomic and Biological Features of a Natural Vaccinia Virus Infecting Humans. Viruses. 2016; 8(12):328.Chicago/Turabian Style
Trindade, Giliane S.; Emerson, Ginny L.; Sammons, Scott; Frace, Michael; Govil, Dhwani; Fernandes Mota, Bruno E.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; de Assis, Felipe L.; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Li, Yu; Carroll, Darin; Guimarães da Fonseca, Flavio; Kroon, Erna; Damon, Inger K. 2016. "Serro 2 Virus Highlights the Fundamental Genomic and Biological Features of a Natural Vaccinia Virus Infecting Humans." Viruses 8, no. 12: 328.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.