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Viruses 2015, 7(7), 4131-4151;

Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV

State key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Mehle
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR), can sense various RNA viruses, including the avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and trigger the innate immune response. Previous studies have shown that mammalian RIG-I (human and mice) and waterfowl RIG-I (ducks and geese) are essential for type I interferon (IFN) synthesis during AIV infection. Like ducks, pigeons are also susceptible to infection but are ineffective propagators and disseminators of AIVs, i.e., “dead end” hosts for AIVs and even highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Consequently, we sought to identify pigeon RIG-I and investigate its roles in the detection of A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 (H9N2) (ZB07), Gansu/Tianshui (IBDV TS) and Beijing/CJ/1980 (IBDV CJ-801) strains in chicken DF-1 fibroblasts or human 293T cells. Pigeon mRNA encoding the putative pigeon RIG-I analogs was identified. The exogenous expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged pigeon RIG-I and caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), strongly induced antiviral gene (IFN-β, Mx, and PKR) mRNA synthesis, decreased viral gene (M gene and VP2) mRNA expression, and reduced the viral titers of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 virus strains in chicken DF-1 cells, but not in 293T cells. We also compared the antiviral abilities of RIG-I proteins from waterfowl (duck and goose) and pigeon. Our data indicated that waterfowl RIG-I are more effective in the induction of antiviral genes and the repression of ZB07 and IBDV TS/CJ-801 strain replication than pigeon RIG-I. Furthermore, chicken melanoma differentiation associated gene 5(MDA5)/ mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) silencing combined with RIG-I transfection suggested that pigeon RIG-I can restore the antiviral response in MDA5-silenced DF-1 cells but not in MAVS-silenced DF-1 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that pigeon RIG-I and CARDs have a strong antiviral ability against AIV H9N2 and IBDV in chicken DF-1 cells but not in human 293T cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: pigeon; RIG-I; CARDs; IBDV; H9N2 pigeon; RIG-I; CARDs; IBDV; H9N2

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Xu, W.; Shao, Q.; Zang, Y.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Z. Pigeon RIG-I Function in Innate Immunity against H9N2 IAV and IBDV. Viruses 2015, 7, 4131-4151.

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