Next Article in Journal
Genomic Sequencing and Biological Characteristics of a Novel Escherichia Coli Bacteriophage 9g, a Putative Representative of a New Siphoviridae Genus
Previous Article in Journal
CPB1 of Aedes aegypti Interacts with DENV2 E Protein and Regulates Intracellular Viral Accumulation and Release from Midgut Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Challenges in the Design of a T Cell Vaccine in the Context of HIV-1 Diversity
Open AccessReview

Architectural Insight into Inovirus-Associated Vectors (IAVs) and Development of IAV-Based Vaccines Inducing Humoral and Cellular Responses: Implications in HIV-1 Vaccines

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Avenue, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5047-5076; https://doi.org/10.3390/v6125047
Received: 17 September 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 17 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AIDS Vaccine 2014)
Inovirus-associated vectors (IAVs) are engineered, non-lytic, filamentous bacteriophages that are assembled primarily from thousands of copies of the major coat protein gp8 and just five copies of each of the four minor coat proteins gp3, gp6, gp7 and gp9. Inovirus display studies have shown that the architecture of inoviruses makes all coat proteins of the inoviral particle accessible to the outside. This particular feature of IAVs allows foreign antigenic peptides to be displayed on the outer surface of the virion fused to its coat proteins and for more than two decades has been exploited in many applications including antibody or peptide display libraries, drug design, and vaccine development against infectious and non-infectious diseases. As vaccine carriers, IAVs have been shown to elicit both a cellular and humoral response against various pathogens through the display of antibody epitopes on their coat proteins. Despite their high immunogenicity, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 has not yet materialized. One possible limitation of previous efforts was the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which exhibited autoreactivity properties. In the past five years, however, new, more potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that do not exhibit autoreactivity properties have been isolated from HIV-1 infected individuals, suggesting that vaccination strategies aimed at producing such broadly neutralizing antibodies may confer protection against infection. The utilization of these new, broadly neutralizing antibodies in combination with the architectural traits of IAVs have driven the current developments in the design of an inovirus-based vaccine against HIV-1. This article reviews the applications of IAVs in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on the design of inoviral-based vaccines against HIV-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1 vaccine; inovirus; inovirus display; phage display; viral vectors; antigen display; inovirus-associated vectors HIV-1 vaccine; inovirus; inovirus display; phage display; viral vectors; antigen display; inovirus-associated vectors
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hassapis, K.A.; Stylianou, D.C.; Kostrikis, L.G. Architectural Insight into Inovirus-Associated Vectors (IAVs) and Development of IAV-Based Vaccines Inducing Humoral and Cellular Responses: Implications in HIV-1 Vaccines. Viruses 2014, 6, 5047-5076.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop