Next Article in Journal
Porcine Bocavirus: Achievements in the Past Five Years
Next Article in Special Issue
Origins of the Endogenous and Infectious Laboratory Mouse Gammaretroviruses
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
In between: Gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster Reveals New Insights into Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 4926-4945;

“Ménage à Trois”: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61-1QH, UK
UMR5667, Laboratory of Plant Development and Reproduction, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d'Italie, 69007 Lyon, France
Department of Animal Sciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, PO Box 646310 Pullman, Washington, DC, USA
UMR754, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, SFR BioSciences Gerland, 50 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [867 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  


Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium. View Full-Text
Keywords: JSRV; enJSRV; retrovirus; virus-host co-evolution; restriction factors; placenta JSRV; enJSRV; retrovirus; virus-host co-evolution; restriction factors; placenta

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Armezzani, A.; Varela, M.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.; Arnaud, F. “Ménage à Trois”: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep. Viruses 2014, 6, 4926-4945.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top