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Open AccessArticle

Euthanasia Assessment in Ebola Virus Infected Nonhuman Primates

US Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St., Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
Madigan Army Medical Center, 9040 Jackson Ave., Tacoma, WA 98431, USA
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Integrated Research Facility, 8200 Research Plaza, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Building 42, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4666-4682;
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
Multiple products are being developed for use against filoviral infections. Efficacy for these products will likely be demonstrated in nonhuman primate models of filoviral disease to satisfy licensure requirements under the Animal Rule, or to supplement human data. Typically, the endpoint for efficacy assessment will be survival following challenge; however, there exists no standardized approach for assessing the health or euthanasia criteria for filovirus-exposed nonhuman primates. Consideration of objective criteria is important to (a) ensure test subjects are euthanized without unnecessary distress; (b) enhance the likelihood that animals exhibiting mild or moderate signs of disease are not prematurely euthanized; (c) minimize the occurrence of spontaneous deaths and loss of end-stage samples; (d) enhance the reproducibility of experiments between different researchers; and (e) provide a defensible rationale for euthanasia decisions that withstands regulatory scrutiny. Historic records were compiled for 58 surviving and non-surviving monkeys exposed to Ebola virus at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Clinical pathology parameters were statistically analyzed and those exhibiting predicative value for survival are reported. These findings may be useful for standardization of objective euthanasia assessments in rhesus monkeys exposed to Ebola virus and may serve as a useful approach for other standardization efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: filovirus; nonhuman primate; viral hemorrhagic fever; euthanasia; clinical pathology; Ebola virus filovirus; nonhuman primate; viral hemorrhagic fever; euthanasia; clinical pathology; Ebola virus
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Warren, T.K.; Trefry, J.C.; Marko, S.T.; Chance, T.B.; Wells, J.B.; Pratt, W.D.; Johnson, J.C.; Mucker, E.M.; Norris, S.L.; Chappell, M.; Dye, J.M.; Honko, A.N. Euthanasia Assessment in Ebola Virus Infected Nonhuman Primates. Viruses 2014, 6, 4666-4682.

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