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Open AccessReview

Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

Department of Virology, ErasmusMC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1438-1476;
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
PDF [4444 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


The influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses and recognition by components of the humoral and cellular immune response, which consequently may result in reduced clearing of the virus and virus-infected cells. Finally, we discuss how the current knowledge about immune evasion can be used to improve influenza A vaccination strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; evasion; innate immunity; adaptive immunity influenza; evasion; innate immunity; adaptive immunity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Van de Sandt, C.E.; Kreijtz, J.H.C.M.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F. Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses. Viruses 2012, 4, 1438-1476.

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