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Innate Immunity to H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Humans

Department of Microbiology and the Emerging Pathogens Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
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Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3363-3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123363
Received: 3 November 2012 / Revised: 19 November 2012 / Accepted: 21 November 2012 / Published: 26 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Avian influenza virus infections in the human population are rare due to their inefficient direct human-to-human transmission. However, when humans are infected, a strong inflammatory response is usually induced, characterized by elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines in serum, believed to be important in the severe pathogenesis that develops in a high proportion of these patients. Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. In this review we summarize and discuss the most important findings in this field, focusing mainly on H5N1 virulence factors and their impact on the modulation of the innate immunity in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: H5N1; influenza virus; cytokines; innate immunity; virulence factors; antiviral response H5N1; influenza virus; cytokines; innate immunity; virulence factors; antiviral response
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Ramos, I.; Fernandez-Sesma, A. Innate Immunity to H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Humans. Viruses 2012, 4, 3363-3388.

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