Gender-Responsive Design of Bacteriophage Products to Enhance Adoption by Chicken Keepers in Kenya
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Sites
2.2. Data Collection
2.3. Lean Social Canvas
3.1. Participant Demographics
3.2. Reasons for Keeping Chickens and Breed Preferences
I keep chickens because of their many benefits. I take them to the market when I do not have money, sell them, and use the money to do things at home. They give me eggs that my children eat, and at times I sell the eggs. They make my home beautiful, and they give me manure.
I kept broilers for almost ten years. They are marketable. When you are consistent, you can keep them because the people you supply are asking for the chickens, but we were not consistent. Sometimes we did not have them, so I turned to layers, and it is going very well. The only challenge is that before they start laying the eggs, they spend a lot of money, but otherwise the layers are better.
On the subject of side effects, I personally do not like keeping exotic breeds because of the additives in feeds used to stimulate growth. There are effects from these exotic breeds; for instance, a three-month-old chicken is ready for consumption. Even us in the village may be at risk because we will find them all over the marketplaces, so I fear them so much.
I want to say that kienyeji chickens have no effect. I have been with them for about 40 years; they do not need a lot of medication and hence are safe to eat.
3.3. Roles in Routine and Management Tasks
3.3.1. Free-Range Production
When I wake up in the morning and find my chickens sick, I am not happy, and I do not have peace. I will act fast to get the medicine to give to them. If I send my husband, he may have other things to do, and he may take time to bring it, making me wait to give the chickens medicine. Sometimes he may even forget.
3.3.2. Semi-Intensive Production
There’s consultation here and there, but I solely make the decisions. I do inform him that I made this decision because of this and that. It is a formality because he is not interested. Sometimes the chickens are being picked up at 4 a.m., and the ones taking them are men. I have to tell him to be available that day because I am selling chickens and they will be picked up at night. Even if he will not support, he has to be there for security. Consultation comes in handy.
There is a saying from my past that ‘the bedbugs and the lice in a house belong to the man of the house’. Hence, the chickens belong to the man of the house, and he can delegate responsibilities to anyone. My wife is the owner, unless she gets stuck and requests for me to boost her. Sometimes there are losses, and I cannot say that my wife should bear the loss alone. We sit down and agree. Since it is a family thing, we decide as a family.
3.4. Disease and Health Concerns
I have not had so many complaints about that (bacterial diseases), because mostly it is a hygiene issue. Even when they die of that, they (farmers) will not know. There is one farmer who called me. He was sure it was salmonellosis because he is young and he may be able to Google. You know, Google has become the best vet and the best doctor. For many, it is Newcastle and Gumboro.
There was a time I lost a batch of 500 layers. What I have realized is that when fowl typhoid sets in, it is very resistant to drugs. It is like it is suppressed for some time, but even before the dose is finished, it recurs. Twice I have experienced the same, and it is one disease that I have come to fear.
3.5. Relationship with Animal Health Professionals
When there is a health issue, I look for people trained in poultry matters, although they are very few. For example, in the village you might find only two of them, and it is very difficult to get them. (Man, semi-intensive production, Machakos County)
The veterinary officers from the government know better, and we prefer them because they know what to give when the chicken is sick instead of going to the agrovet, where they do not know what the drug is for. (Woman, free-range production, Kiambu County)
3.6. Veterinary Products
For most vaccines, I normally do it myself, but for injectables, I pay a vet who does it for me. That is for the wing stab and the intramuscular vaccine administered to the thigh. However, the ones we give in water, I give them myself. (Man, semi-intensive production, Kiambu County)
I think our biggest challenge, especially when dealing with layers, is the withdrawal of eggs once the chickens have been medicated. Broilers are a bit better. You cannot expect me to collect my 35 trays of eggs for three days and dispose of them. I will sell the eggs. (Man, semi-intensive production, Nairobi County)
Participant: I went back to the vet and was told at least every month I should give the chickens medication, alternating between Newcastle and Gumboro vaccines.
Facilitator: Has this alternating and medicating monthly had any effect?
Participant: The medicine cost me and there was a withdrawal period for eggs and meat. (Woman, free-range production, Nairobi County)
3.6.3. Traditional Medicine
3.7. Production Factors
3.7.1. Regulatory Environment
Now, we trust Unga feeds, but there are people who have used their packaging bags to sell substandard products, so I do not trust anything Kenyan. I may only trust it if it is from angels or something from a tree.
Sometimes the feeds we give to the chicken cause the eggs to be small or the yolk to be light, and we are forced to buy the booster (a product containing antibiotics) because the feed is not the same. The company may be the same, but the feed is not the same.
Since they do not want them to be taken away by predators, they enclose them in a very small house. If any disease comes, there will be no ventilation, so that disease will kill the chicks. When they start treating, they will go and give just any antibiotic, so they can even overdose.
3.8. Human Health
Now that I keep kienyeji chickens, I mostly do not want to use medication because they are eaten by the family, and when someone comes to buy them, they ask many questions, specifically if the chicken has been given any medication. We want to sell the products that we also eat. That is why I give them aloe vera, because even humans use aloe vera. The times I use antibiotics, it is not because I want to, but because there is no other way or other expertise I can use. (Woman, free-range production, Nairobi County)
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Bacterial disease||Parent node for themes of bacterial disease.|
|Fowl typhoid||Mentions of fowl typhoid by name (not by signs).|
|Infectious coryza||Mentions of infectious coryza by name (not by signs).|
|Pullorum||Mentions of pullorum by name (not by signs).|
|Salmonellosis||Mentions of salmonellosis by name (not by signs).|
|Breed preferences||Information about preferences for rearing different types of chickens and how they may differentially respond to diseases. Key words: kienyeji, local chicken, broiler, layer, exotic, Kuroiler, improved kienyeji.|
|Disease||Theme covering main diseases and animal health concerns mentioned by livestock keepers. For all diseases, code only if the respondent mentions the disease by name. For descriptions of signs/symptoms, code under “signs of disease.”|
|Coccidiosis||Mentions of coccidiosis by name OR by mention of red or bloody diarrhea.|
|Fowl pox||Mentions of fowl pox by name (not by signs).|
|Gumboro||Mentions of Gumboro by name (not by signs), also known as infectious bursal disease (IBD).|
|Newcastle disease||Mentions of Newcastle disease by name (not by signs).|
|Parasites||Mention of internal or external parasites, including ticks, fleas, worms, lice, etc.|
|Gender||Parent node for gender themes.|
|Access to vet products or services||Any gender differences in the way women and men access vet products, services, and information; barriers.|
|Farmer roles||Who owns, who decides, who sells, who is consulted, and who does general roles with a focus on age and gender. Who in the household does different tasks and why? Key words: Ownership, decision-making.|
|Buying and paying for vet inputs||Information about who buys and pays for veterinary inputs with an emphasis on who does the task and their age/gender. The act of physically buying inputs such as drugs, vaccines, vitamins and providing the cash for the purchase.|
|Buying selling chickens and eggs||Information about who buys and sells chickens, eggs, and meat, and makes decisions about purchases and sales, with emphasis on who does the task and their age/gender.|
|Identifying sick chickens||Information about who identifies sick chickens, with emphasis on who does the task and their age/gender.|
|Ownership||Information about who owns the chickens and consultations relating to ownership decisions.|
|Routine tasks||Feeding, watering, cleaning, collecting eggs, and any other routine/”menial” tasks that are performed daily or regularly.|
|Veterinary decision-making||Information about who makes decisions about veterinary care, with emphasis on who does the task and their age/gender. E.g., deciding to call a vet, go to an agrovet, give traditional medicine, or seek treatment.|
|Professionals||Challenges faced when working as a woman vet/agrovet, differences between men and women.|
|Information||Parent node for themes about where chicken keepers get information.|
|Info sources||Source of information about chicken keeping. Can be formal (e.g.,: vet) or informal (e.g., my mother). Include social media, radio, TV, etc.|
|Relationship with professionals||Information about the perceptions, trust, and relationships between farmers and professionals, including vets or agrovets, that influence access. E.g., skill level, availability, ease of traveling, or contacting.|
|Training||Training attended; who offered; who attended; why? Note: Cross-code gender differences in access to information as “gender differences in access.”|
|Product details||Products include all veterinary inputs, including treatments, vaccines, vitamins, traditional medicine, and feeds.|
|Administration||Mode of administration used/preferred for veterinary products (including traditional medicine). Examples include drinking water, intramuscular, powder.|
|Adoption||Factors that limit or support the adoption/uptake of new products.|
|Cold chain||Any information about product storage, handling, or cold-chain requirements.|
|New product attributes||Desired attributes for a new product including cost, effectiveness, packaging, color, etc.|
|Packaging||Details about veterinary products such as dose, package size, appearance of the package, labeling, and instructions.|
|Source||Where do you source from? Consider distance, means of transport, and availability when needed.|
|Production||Parent node for themes relating to chicken production.|
|Biosecurity||Details about biosecurity practices, including isolating, quarantining, sanitation, foot bath, and limiting visitors.|
|COVID||Effects of COVID on chicken rearing, marketing, and production.|
|Feeds||Details about types of feeds used, access to feeds, cost, and quality.|
|Housing||Details about chicken housing.|
|Marketing||Access to markets to sell eggs and chickens and information about markets.|
|Regulation||Details about legal policies regarding sales, movement of chickens, regulation of inputs, etc.|
|Vet services||Information about veterinary services, challenges, and details about government structure.|
|Products||Parent node for veterinary and cleaning products used by chicken keepers.|
|Antibiotics||Descriptions of the use of or qualities of antibiotics for chickens.|
|Antibiotics (not working)||Stories or descriptions of antibiotics or drugs not working.|
|Cleaning||Descriptions of any products used for cleaning and disinfecting, whether commercial or homemade.|
|Drugs (not specified)||Descriptions of drugs that are not antibiotics, such as coccidiostats/dewormers or drugs that are not specified.|
|Traditional medicine||Descriptions of herbal treatments (e.g., aloe vera) or remedies involving household items (e.g., chili, milk) or human drugs (e.g., panadol).|
|Vaccines||Descriptions of all chicken vaccines.|
|Vitamins||Descriptions of products containing vitamins. Code mentions of nutrition in feeds (e.g., supplemental feeding of kale) under the feeds node.|
|Withdrawal period||Descriptions of the waiting period after giving antibiotics to consume meat and eggs.|
|Reasons for rearing chickens||Why do respondents rear chickens?|
|Negative effects on human health||Does keeping chicken affect the health of the people in the household? List negative effects only. E.g., drug residues, allergies, and zoonoses.|
|Zoonoses||Any reference to zoonoses —diseases jumping from animals to humans.|
|Signs of disease||Parent node for themes relating to signs of disease.|
|Chick mortality||Descriptions of chick mortality. Not only associated with bacterial diseases but also with coding since this was an important theme for chicken keepers.|
|Reduced laying||Mentions of reduced egg production regardless of the listed cause. Coded because of the strong association with fowl typhoid.|
|Respiratory||Themes of respiratory signs, including coughing, sneezing, snoring, chest congestion, etc.|
|White diarrhea||Descriptions of white or watery diarrhea. Coded for strong association with bacterial diseases.|
|Name of Drug (Trade Name)||Active Ingredients||Mode of Administration||Mentioned by|
|Diozene||Diosmium micronisatum||Drinking water||✓|
|Diseptoprin||Sulphadiazine Trimethoprim||Drinking water||✓|
|Agracox||Sulphadiazine, Pyrimethamine Furaltadone, Vitamin A, and K3||Drinking water||✓|
|Biosol||Trimethoprim and Sulphamethoxazole||Drinking water||✓||✓|
|Poltricin (tetracyclines)||Oxytetracycline||Eye drops||✓|
|Force back||Tefluthrin||Drinking water||✓|
|Aliseryl||Erythromycin, Oxytetracycline, and Streptomycin||Drinking water||✓|
|Neoxyvital||Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, and K, Calcium Pantothenate, Nicotinamide, Manganese, Zinc sulphate, Iron sulphate, Copper sulphate, Cobalt sulphate, and Potassium iodide||Drinking water||✓|
|Aliseryl||Erythromycin, Oxytetracycline, Streptomycin, Vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D3, E, and K3||Drinking water||✓|
|Oxysol plus||Oxytetracycline||Drinking water||✓|
|ESB 30%||Sulfaclozine sodium monohydrate||Drinking water||✓|
|ESB 3||Sulfaclozine sodium monohydrate||Drinking water||✓||✓|
|Amprolium||Amprolium Hydrochloride||Drinking water||✓|
|Amprobum||Amprolium Hydrochloride||Drinking water||✓|
|Bettercox||Amprolium Hydrochloride||Drinking water||✓|
|Coccidoxidants||Amprolium Hydrochloride||Drinking water||✓|
|Coccid||Amprolium Hydrochloride||Drinking water||✓|
|Ascarex||Piperazine Dihydrochloride||Drinking water||✓|
|Other veterinary products|
|Multivitamins||Nicotinamide, Vit A, B1, B2, C, and D||Drinking water||✓|
|Calcium like DCP||Phosphorus and Calcium||Mixed with feed||✓|
|Livogen (iron replacement product)||Ferrous Fumarate (Iron) and Folic Acid (vitamin B9)||Subcutaneous Injection and Drinking water||✓|
|Dewormers||Levacide||Levamisole Hydrochloride||Subcutaneous injection||✓|
|(Ascarex)||Piperazine Dihydrochloride||Drinking water||✓|
|Glucose||Oral dose, Drinking water, and Subcutaneous injection||✓|
|Cetrino||levocetirizine||Oral dose and Intramuscular injection||✓|
|Cetrino (tropical antiseptic cream)||Cetrimide||Topical||✓|
|Newcastle vaccines||I-2 and La Sota strains of the Newcastle disease virus||Eye drop and oral, respectively||✓||✓|
|Gumboro vaccine||Live IBD strain 228E||Drinking water||✓||✓|
|Fowl pox vaccine||Fowl Pox Virus||Wing web stab||✓||✓|
|Fowl typhoid vaccine||1 × 107 CFU of the Salmonella gallinarum 9R strain||Subcutaneous/intramuscular injection||✓||✓|
|Marek’s vaccine||FC-126 strain of turkey herpesvirus and SB-I strain of chicken herpesvirus||Subcutaneous injection||✓||✓|
|Aloe vera||Aloe barbadensis miller||Added to drinking water or applied to an infected area; mixed with other herbs like chilli pepper and crushed||✓||✓|
|Oil or liquid paraffin||Topically applied on infected area||✓|
|Blackjack||Bidens pilosa||Hang leaves and stems as a supplemental feed||✓|
|Chilli (Hot) pepper||Capsicum frutescens||Drinking water||✓|
|Black pepper||Piper nigrum||Drinking water||✓|
|Tobacco||Nicotiana tabacum||Drinking water||✓|
|Red onions||Allium cepa||Drinking water||✓|
|Spring onions||Allium fistulosum||Chopped and mixed with drinking water||✓|
|Garlic||Allium sativum||Drinking water||✓|
|Ginger||Zingiber officinale||Drinking water||✓|
|Mexican marigold||Tagetes erecta||Drinking water||✓|
|Muvuavui (local name)||From a tree, can cause skin irritation in people||✓|
|Uthunga||Launaea cornuta||Drinking water||✓|
|Mukinduri (Croton tree)||Codiaeum variegatum||Drinking water||✓|
|Soot||Black carbon||Orally and drinking water||✓|
|Cleaning/disinfection (Biosecurity measures)|
|Soap||Sodium hydroxide||Mixed with water for cleaning||✓|
|Norocleanse||Glutaraldehyde and Coco-benzyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride||Spraying, foot bath, and misting||✓|
|TH4||Quaternary ammonium, glutaraldehyde||Spraying on solid surfaces, footbath, and thermo fogging||✓|
|Virumex||Quaternary ammonium||Spraying on solid surfaces||✓|
|Jik (bleach)||Sodium Hypochlorite||Mixed with water for cleaning||✓|
|Intradyne||Calcium hypochlorite||Spraying on solid surfaces||✓|
|Wood ash||Poured into the chicken house to kill germs||✓|
|Soda||Sodium bicarbonate||Diluted in water for foot bath||✓|
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|Age (yrs) 2||<35||6||9||4||10||29|
|Type of chicken 2||Local||30||21||8||8||67|
|Source vet care 2||Agrovet||24||19||17||20||80|
|Access to ND vaccines (%)||89%||65%||100%||83%||85%|
|Used antibiotics last 4 months||73%||59%||68%||73%||69%|
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Campbell, Z.A.; Njiru, N.; Mhone, A.L.; Makumi, A.; Moineau, S.; Svitek, N. Gender-Responsive Design of Bacteriophage Products to Enhance Adoption by Chicken Keepers in Kenya. Viruses 2023, 15, 746. https://doi.org/10.3390/v15030746
Campbell ZA, Njiru N, Mhone AL, Makumi A, Moineau S, Svitek N. Gender-Responsive Design of Bacteriophage Products to Enhance Adoption by Chicken Keepers in Kenya. Viruses. 2023; 15(3):746. https://doi.org/10.3390/v15030746Chicago/Turabian Style
Campbell, Zoë A., Nelly Njiru, Amos Lucky Mhone, Angela Makumi, Sylvain Moineau, and Nicholas Svitek. 2023. "Gender-Responsive Design of Bacteriophage Products to Enhance Adoption by Chicken Keepers in Kenya" Viruses 15, no. 3: 746. https://doi.org/10.3390/v15030746