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Article

Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein Reduction Differentiated Recovery from Remission in a Small Cohort of Cats Treated for Feline Infectious Peritonitis

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Independent Researcher, 64470 Etchebar, France
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Independent Researcher, London, UK
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Independent Researcher, Melton Mowbray, UK
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Independent Researcher, Östersund, Sweden
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Independent Researcher, Maidstone, Kent, UK
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Independent Researcher, Bracknell, UK
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Independent Researcher, Maidstone, UK
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Independent Researcher, Hampstead, UK
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Independent Researcher, Ayr, UK
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Independent Researcher, Manchester, UK
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Independent Researcher, Exeter, UK
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Independent Researcher, Brighton, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pinghuang Liu
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040744
Received: 24 February 2022 / Revised: 23 March 2022 / Accepted: 29 March 2022 / Published: 1 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Coronavirus Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a systemic immune-mediated inflammatory perivasculitis that occurs in a minority of cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV). Various therapies have been employed to treat this condition, which was previously usually fatal, though no parameters for differentiating FIP recovery from remission have been defined to enable clinicians to decide when it is safe to discontinue treatment. This retrospective observational study shows that a consistent reduction of the acute phase protein alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) to within normal limits (WNL, i.e., 500 μg/mL or below), as opposed to duration of survival, distinguishes recovery from remission. Forty-two cats were diagnosed with FIP: 75% (12/16) of effusive and 54% (14/26) of non-effusive FIP cases recovered. Presenting with the effusive or non-effusive form did not affect whether or not a cat fully recovered (p = 0.2). AGP consistently reduced to WNL in 26 recovered cats but remained elevated in 16 cats in remission, dipping to normal once in two of the latter. Anaemia was present in 77% (23/30) of the cats and resolved more quickly than AGP in six recovered cats. The presence of anaemia did not affect the cat’s chances of recovery (p = 0.1). Lymphopenia was observed in 43% (16/37) of the cats and reversed in nine recovered cats but did not reverse in seven lymphopenic cats in the remission group. Fewer recovered cats (9/24: 37%) than remission cats (7/13: 54%) were lymphopenic, but the difference was not statistically different (p = 0.5). Hyperglobulinaemia was slower than AGP to return to WNL in the recovered cats. FCoV antibody titre was high in all 42 cats at the outset. It decreased significantly in 7 recovered cats but too slowly to be a useful parameter to determine discontinuation of antiviral treatments. Conclusion: a sustained return to normal levels of AGP was the most rapid and consistent indicator for differentiating recovery from remission following treatment for FIP. This study provides a useful model for differentiating recovery from chronic coronavirus disease using acute phase protein monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: feline coronavirus; feline infectious peritonitis; FIP; treatment; alpha-1 acid glycoprotein; AGP; acute-phase protein; interferon omega; antiviral; meloxicam feline coronavirus; feline infectious peritonitis; FIP; treatment; alpha-1 acid glycoprotein; AGP; acute-phase protein; interferon omega; antiviral; meloxicam
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MDPI and ACS Style

Addie, D.D.; Silveira, C.; Aston, C.; Brauckmann, P.; Covell-Ritchie, J.; Felstead, C.; Fosbery, M.; Gibbins, C.; Macaulay, K.; McMurrough, J.; Pattison, E.; Robertson, E. Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein Reduction Differentiated Recovery from Remission in a Small Cohort of Cats Treated for Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Viruses 2022, 14, 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040744

AMA Style

Addie DD, Silveira C, Aston C, Brauckmann P, Covell-Ritchie J, Felstead C, Fosbery M, Gibbins C, Macaulay K, McMurrough J, Pattison E, Robertson E. Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein Reduction Differentiated Recovery from Remission in a Small Cohort of Cats Treated for Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Viruses. 2022; 14(4):744. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Addie, Diane D., Carla Silveira, Charlotte Aston, Pauline Brauckmann, Johanna Covell-Ritchie, Chris Felstead, Mark Fosbery, Caryn Gibbins, Kristina Macaulay, James McMurrough, Ed Pattison, and Elise Robertson. 2022. "Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein Reduction Differentiated Recovery from Remission in a Small Cohort of Cats Treated for Feline Infectious Peritonitis" Viruses 14, no. 4: 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040744

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