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Review

Updates on the Epidemiology of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Infection in the Countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization with Special Emphasis on the Situation in Iran

1
Blood Borne Infections Research Center, Academic Center for Education, Culture & Research (ACECR), Razavi Khorasan Branch, Mashhad 91775-1376, Iran
2
Department of Experimental Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
4
Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Louis M. Mansky
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040664
Received: 21 December 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2022 / Accepted: 21 March 2022 / Published: 23 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 40 Years Anniversary of HTLV-1 Discovery)
Background: The epidemiology and prevalence of the Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection represent a recommended priority by global health agencies. An in-depth revision to update the status of this infection in countries including those of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) of the World Health Organization is hence required. Methods: Ninety-seven studies evaluating the HTLV-1 infection in low- and high-risk populations in EMRO countries were retrieved from the international electronic databases and were used to assess the epidemiological status of the infection in these countries. Results: Most epidemiologic reports were published from Iran, with more than 50% of Iranian prisoners and around 4% of healthy individuals reported to have the infection. In Egypt, a considerable prevalence of the virus spans around 1.11% of blood donors. Foci of HTLV-1 infection are also present in some countries and require a careful epidemiological evaluation. In the other EMRO countries, a lower prevalence that does not exceed 1% was reported. Conclusion: The epidemiology and prevalence of HTLV-1 in the EMRO countries require a tight revision and update. Published studies reveal a scarce distribution of the virus in the African countries of EMRO, while a lower prevalence is denoted in the Asian countries of EMRO, except in Iran, where the prevalence is high. View Full-Text
Keywords: human T-lymphotropic virus 1; Eastern Mediterranean Region; prevalence; epidemiology; Asian countries of EMRO; African countries of EMRO human T-lymphotropic virus 1; Eastern Mediterranean Region; prevalence; epidemiology; Asian countries of EMRO; African countries of EMRO
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hedayati-Moghaddam, M.R.; Jafarzadeh Esfehani, R.; El Hajj, H.; Bazarbachi, A. Updates on the Epidemiology of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Infection in the Countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization with Special Emphasis on the Situation in Iran. Viruses 2022, 14, 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040664

AMA Style

Hedayati-Moghaddam MR, Jafarzadeh Esfehani R, El Hajj H, Bazarbachi A. Updates on the Epidemiology of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Infection in the Countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization with Special Emphasis on the Situation in Iran. Viruses. 2022; 14(4):664. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza, Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani, Hiba El Hajj, and Ali Bazarbachi. 2022. "Updates on the Epidemiology of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Infection in the Countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization with Special Emphasis on the Situation in Iran" Viruses 14, no. 4: 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040664

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