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Article

TREC/KREC Levels and T and B Lymphocyte Subpopulations in COVID-19 Patients at Different Stages of the Disease

1
Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, Scientific Research Institute of Medical Problems of the North, 660022 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
2
Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 660022 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
3
Institute of Experimental Medicine, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Institute of Life Sciences and Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, 690922 Vladivostok, Russia
5
National Research Center—Institute of Immunology, Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 115522 Moscow, Russia
6
Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, Russia
7
Moscow City Center for Pediatric Immunology and Allergy, G. Speransky Children’s Hospital No 9, 129329 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ayato Takada
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030646
Received: 10 February 2022 / Revised: 17 March 2022 / Accepted: 18 March 2022 / Published: 21 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Research in Russia 2022)
Background: T and B cell-mediated immunity can be assessed using T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) and Kappa-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) analysis, respectively, and successful implementation of this method requires evaluation of the correlation between the TREC frequencies and T cell subsets as well as KREC levels and B lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the TREC/KREC concentrations and T/B lymphocyte subsets at different stages of COVID-19. Methods: We examined 33 patients in the acute stage of COVID-19 (including 8 patients with poor outcomes) and 33 COVID-19 survivors. TREC/KREC concentrations were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. T/B lymphocyte subsets were determined using flow cytometry. Results: Blood TREC and KREC levels were found to be significantly lower in the acute stage of COVID-19 compared to control values. Moreover, a zero blood TREC level was a predictor of a poor disease outcome. Reductions in CD3+CD4+CD45ROCD62L and CD3+CD8+CD45ROCD62L T cell counts (as well as in the main fractions of B1 and B2 B cells) indicated a favorable outcome in COVID-19 patients in the acute stage of the disease. Decreased CD3+CD4+CD45ROCD62L+ and CD3+CD8+CD45ROCD62L+ T cell frequencies and increased CD3+CD8+CD45ROCD62L cell counts were found to indicate a poor outcome in patients with acute COVID-19. These patients were also found to have increased B1 cell counts while demonstrating no changes in B2 cell counts. The levels of effector T cell subsets an naïve B cells were normal in COVID-19 survivors. The most pronounced correlations between TREC/KREC levels and T/B cell subsets counts were observed in COVID-19 survivors: there were positive correlations with naïve T and B lymphocytes and negative correlations with central and effector memory T cell subsets. Conclusions: The assessment of correlations between TREC and T cell subsets as well as KREC levels and B cell subset counts in patients with acute COVID-19 and COVID-19 survivors has shown that blood concentrations of TREC and KREC are sensitive indicators of the stage of antigen-independent differentiation of adaptive immunity cells. The results of the TREC and KREC analysis correlated with the stages of COVID-19 and differed depending on the outcome of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 patients; T lymphocyte; B lymphocyte; TREC; KREC COVID-19 patients; T lymphocyte; B lymphocyte; TREC; KREC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Savchenko, A.A.; Tikhonova, E.; Kudryavtsev, I.; Kudlay, D.; Korsunsky, I.; Beleniuk, V.; Borisov, A. TREC/KREC Levels and T and B Lymphocyte Subpopulations in COVID-19 Patients at Different Stages of the Disease. Viruses 2022, 14, 646. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030646

AMA Style

Savchenko AA, Tikhonova E, Kudryavtsev I, Kudlay D, Korsunsky I, Beleniuk V, Borisov A. TREC/KREC Levels and T and B Lymphocyte Subpopulations in COVID-19 Patients at Different Stages of the Disease. Viruses. 2022; 14(3):646. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030646

Chicago/Turabian Style

Savchenko, Andrei A., Elena Tikhonova, Igor Kudryavtsev, Dmitry Kudlay, Ilya Korsunsky, Vasily Beleniuk, and Alexandr Borisov. 2022. "TREC/KREC Levels and T and B Lymphocyte Subpopulations in COVID-19 Patients at Different Stages of the Disease" Viruses 14, no. 3: 646. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030646

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