Next Article in Journal
Dengue and Zika Virus Capsid Proteins Contain a Common PEX19-Binding Motif
Previous Article in Journal
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Viruses in 2021
Article

Detection and Characterisation of an Endogenous Betaretrovirus in Australian Wild Deer

1
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia
2
Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia
3
Environment and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
4
Vertebrate Pest Research Unit, Department of Primary Industries, Orange Agricultural Institute, Orange, NSW 2800, Australia
5
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Invasive Plants & Animals Research, Biosecurity Queensland, Ecosciences Precinct, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia
6
Ecotone Wildlife, Inverloch, VIC 3996, Australia
7
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
8
School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Klimkait
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020252
Received: 16 December 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 26 January 2022 / Published: 27 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the remnants of past retroviral infections that once invaded the host’s germline and were vertically transmitted. ERV sequences have been reported in mammals, but their distribution and diversity in cervids are unclear. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified a nearly complete genome of an endogenous betaretrovirus in fallow deer (Dama dama). Further genomic analysis showed that this provirus, tentatively named cervid endogenous betaretrovirus 1 (CERV β1), has typical betaretroviral genome features (gag-pro-pol-env) and the betaretrovirus-specific dUTPase domain. In addition, CERV β1 pol sequences were detected by PCR in the six non-native deer species with wild populations in Australia. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that CERV β1 sequences from subfamily Cervinae clustered as sister taxa to ERV-like sequences in species of subfamily Muntiacinae. These findings, therefore, suggest that CERV β1 endogenisation occurred after the split of these two subfamilies (between 3.3 and 5 million years ago). Our results provide important insights into the evolution of betaretroviruses in cervids. View Full-Text
Keywords: betaretrovirus; class II retroviruses; deer; endogenous retroviruses; genetic characterisation betaretrovirus; class II retroviruses; deer; endogenous retroviruses; genetic characterisation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Huaman, J.L.; Pacioni, C.; Forsyth, D.M.; Pople, A.; Hampton, J.O.; Carvalho, T.G.; Helbig, K.J. Detection and Characterisation of an Endogenous Betaretrovirus in Australian Wild Deer. Viruses 2022, 14, 252. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020252

AMA Style

Huaman JL, Pacioni C, Forsyth DM, Pople A, Hampton JO, Carvalho TG, Helbig KJ. Detection and Characterisation of an Endogenous Betaretrovirus in Australian Wild Deer. Viruses. 2022; 14(2):252. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020252

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huaman, Jose L., Carlo Pacioni, David M. Forsyth, Anthony Pople, Jordan O. Hampton, Teresa G. Carvalho, and Karla J. Helbig. 2022. "Detection and Characterisation of an Endogenous Betaretrovirus in Australian Wild Deer" Viruses 14, no. 2: 252. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020252

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop