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Article

Antiviral Activity of Vitis vinifera Leaf Extract against SARS-CoV-2 and HSV-1

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (IBBC), National Research Council (CNR), 80131 Naples, Italy
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Department of Marine Biotechnology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80125 Naples, Italy
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Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
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Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Vico Luigi De Crecchio 7, 80138 Naples, Italy
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Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources (IBBR), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), 80055 Portici, Italy
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BIOGEM, 83031 Ariano Irpino, Italy
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Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Scuola Medica Salernitana”, University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albrecht von Brunn
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071263
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 25 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broad-Spectrum Antivirals of Coronaviruses Replication)
Vitis vinifera represents an important and renowned source of compounds with significant biological activity. Wines and winery bioproducts, such as grape pomace, skins, and seeds, are rich in bioactive compounds against a wide range of human pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little is known about the biological properties of vine leaves. The aim of this study was the evaluation of phenolic composition and antiviral activity of Vitis vinifera leaf extract against two human viruses: the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the pandemic and currently widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). About 40 phenolic compounds were identified in the extract by HPLC-MS/MS analysis: most of them were quercetin derivatives, others included derivatives of luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, chrysoeriol, biochanin, isookanin, and scutellarein. Leaf extract was able to inhibit both HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in the early stages of infection by directly blocking the proteins enriched on the viral surface, at a very low concentration of 10 μg/mL. These results are very promising and highlight how natural extracts could be used in the design of antiviral drugs and the development of future vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; HSV-1; antiviral; antimicrobial; Vitis vinifera; leaf extract; natural extract; flavonoids; molecular networking; LC-MS SARS-CoV-2; HSV-1; antiviral; antimicrobial; Vitis vinifera; leaf extract; natural extract; flavonoids; molecular networking; LC-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zannella, C.; Giugliano, R.; Chianese, A.; Buonocore, C.; Vitale, G.A.; Sanna, G.; Sarno, F.; Manzin, A.; Nebbioso, A.; Termolino, P.; Altucci, L.; Galdiero, M.; de Pascale, D.; Franci, G. Antiviral Activity of Vitis vinifera Leaf Extract against SARS-CoV-2 and HSV-1. Viruses 2021, 13, 1263. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071263

AMA Style

Zannella C, Giugliano R, Chianese A, Buonocore C, Vitale GA, Sanna G, Sarno F, Manzin A, Nebbioso A, Termolino P, Altucci L, Galdiero M, de Pascale D, Franci G. Antiviral Activity of Vitis vinifera Leaf Extract against SARS-CoV-2 and HSV-1. Viruses. 2021; 13(7):1263. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071263

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zannella, Carla, Rosa Giugliano, Annalisa Chianese, Carmine Buonocore, Giovanni A. Vitale, Giuseppina Sanna, Federica Sarno, Aldo Manzin, Angela Nebbioso, Pasquale Termolino, Lucia Altucci, Massimiliano Galdiero, Donatella de Pascale, and Gianluigi Franci. 2021. "Antiviral Activity of Vitis vinifera Leaf Extract against SARS-CoV-2 and HSV-1" Viruses 13, no. 7: 1263. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071263

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