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Case Report

SARS-CoV-2 Antigenemia as a Confounding Factor in Immunodiagnostic Assays: A Case Study

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Molecular Carcinogenesis Group, Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-11527 Athens, Greece
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4th Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-12462 Athens, Greece
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2nd Medical Department, General Hospital of Athens G. Gennimatas, GR-11527 Athens, Greece
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Department of Pathophysiology, Athens School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-11527 Athens, Greece
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Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NQ, UK
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Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Medical School, University of Crete, Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion, Greece
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Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, GR-11527 Athens, Greece
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Center for New Biotechnologies and Precision Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-11527 Athens, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution as first authors.
Academic Editors: Ioannis Karakasiliotis, Apostolos Beloukas and Serafeim Chaintoutis
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061143
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Virus Research in Greece)
Humoral immunity has emerged as a vital immune component against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Nevertheless, a subset of recovered Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) paucisymptomatic/asymptomatic individuals do not generate an antibody response, constituting a paradox. We assumed that immunodiagnostic assays may operate under a competitive format within the context of antigenemia, potentially explaining this phenomenon. We present a case where persistent antigenemia/viremia was documented for at least 73 days post-symptom onset using ‘in-house’ methodology, and as it progressively declined, seroconversion took place late, around day 55, supporting our hypothesis. Thus, prolonged SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia/viremia could mask humoral responses, rendering, in certain cases, the phenomenon of ‘non-responders’ a misnomer. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; viremia; antigenemia; antibody; seroconversion; immunoprevalence; non-responders; ELISA; immunodiagnostics SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; viremia; antigenemia; antibody; seroconversion; immunoprevalence; non-responders; ELISA; immunodiagnostics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Belogiannis, K.; Florou, V.A.; Fragkou, P.C.; Ferous, S.; Chatzis, L.; Polyzou, A.; Lagopati, N.; Vassilakos, D.; Kittas, C.; Tzioufas, A.G.; Tsiodras, S.; Sourvinos, G.; Gorgoulis, V.G. SARS-CoV-2 Antigenemia as a Confounding Factor in Immunodiagnostic Assays: A Case Study. Viruses 2021, 13, 1143. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061143

AMA Style

Belogiannis K, Florou VA, Fragkou PC, Ferous S, Chatzis L, Polyzou A, Lagopati N, Vassilakos D, Kittas C, Tzioufas AG, Tsiodras S, Sourvinos G, Gorgoulis VG. SARS-CoV-2 Antigenemia as a Confounding Factor in Immunodiagnostic Assays: A Case Study. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):1143. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061143

Chicago/Turabian Style

Belogiannis, Konstantinos, Venetia A. Florou, Paraskevi C. Fragkou, Stefanos Ferous, Loukas Chatzis, Aikaterini Polyzou, Nefeli Lagopati, Demetrios Vassilakos, Christos Kittas, Athanasios G. Tzioufas, Sotirios Tsiodras, George Sourvinos, and Vassilis G. Gorgoulis. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 Antigenemia as a Confounding Factor in Immunodiagnostic Assays: A Case Study" Viruses 13, no. 6: 1143. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061143

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