Next Article in Journal
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination
Next Article in Special Issue
Enzyme-Linked Phage Receptor Binding Protein Assays (ELPRA) Enable Identification of Bacillus anthracis Colonies
Previous Article in Journal
Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA Sequences in Milk from Water Buffaloes (Bubalus arnee f. bubalis)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genomic Analysis of a Novel Phage Infecting the Turkey Pathogen Escherichia coli APEC O78 and Its Endolysin Activity

Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators

Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Joana Azeredo and Sílvio Santos
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1089;
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 June 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
Bacteriophages are promising tools for the detection of fecal pollution in different environments, and particularly for viral pathogen risk assessment. Having similar morphological and biological characteristics, bacteriophages mimic the fate and transport of enteric viruses. Enteric bacteriophages, especially phages infecting Escherichia coli (coliphages), have been proposed as alternatives or complements to fecal indicator bacteria. Here, we provide a general overview of the potential use of enteric bacteriophages as fecal and viral indicators in different environments, as well as the available methods for their detection and enumeration, and the regulations for their application. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophages; indicator; fecal pollution bacteriophages; indicator; fecal pollution
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Toribio-Avedillo, D.; Blanch, A.R.; Muniesa, M.; Rodríguez-Rubio, L. Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators. Viruses 2021, 13, 1089.

AMA Style

Toribio-Avedillo D, Blanch AR, Muniesa M, Rodríguez-Rubio L. Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):1089.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toribio-Avedillo, Daniel, Anicet R. Blanch, Maite Muniesa, and Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio. 2021. "Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators" Viruses 13, no. 6: 1089.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop