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Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators

Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Joana Azeredo and Sílvio Santos
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061089
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 June 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
Bacteriophages are promising tools for the detection of fecal pollution in different environments, and particularly for viral pathogen risk assessment. Having similar morphological and biological characteristics, bacteriophages mimic the fate and transport of enteric viruses. Enteric bacteriophages, especially phages infecting Escherichia coli (coliphages), have been proposed as alternatives or complements to fecal indicator bacteria. Here, we provide a general overview of the potential use of enteric bacteriophages as fecal and viral indicators in different environments, as well as the available methods for their detection and enumeration, and the regulations for their application. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophages; indicator; fecal pollution bacteriophages; indicator; fecal pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toribio-Avedillo, D.; Blanch, A.R.; Muniesa, M.; Rodríguez-Rubio, L. Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators. Viruses 2021, 13, 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061089

AMA Style

Toribio-Avedillo D, Blanch AR, Muniesa M, Rodríguez-Rubio L. Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toribio-Avedillo, Daniel, Anicet R. Blanch, Maite Muniesa, and Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio. 2021. "Bacteriophages as Fecal Pollution Indicators" Viruses 13, no. 6: 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061089

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