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Article

Discovery and Characterization of Actively Replicating DNA and Retro-Transcribing Viruses in Lower Vertebrate Hosts Based on RNA Sequencing

School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China
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Academic Editor: Jaquelin Dudley
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061042
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 16 May 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
In a previous study, a metatranscriptomics survey of RNA viruses in several important lower vertebrate host groups revealed huge viral diversity, transforming the understanding of the evolution of vertebrate-associated RNA virus groups. However, the diversity of the DNA and retro-transcribing viruses in these host groups was left uncharacterized. Given that RNA sequencing is capable of revealing viruses undergoing active transcription and replication, we collected previously generated datasets associated with lower vertebrate hosts, and searched them for DNA and retro-transcribing viruses. Our results revealed the complete genome, or “core gene sets”, of 18 vertebrate-associated DNA and retro-transcribing viruses in cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes, and amphibians, many of which had high abundance levels, and some of which showed systemic infections in multiple organs, suggesting active transcription or acute infection within the host. Furthermore, these new findings recharacterized the evolutionary history in the families Hepadnaviridae, Papillomaviridae, and Alloherpesviridae, confirming long-term virus–host codivergence relationships for these virus groups. Collectively, our results revealed reliable and sufficient information within metatranscriptomics sequencing to characterize not only RNA viruses, but also DNA and retro-transcribing viruses, and therefore established a key methodology that will help us to understand the composition and evolution of the total “infectome” within a diverse range of vertebrate hosts. View Full-Text
Keywords: metatranscriptomics; virome; codivergence; vertebrate-associated DNA virus metatranscriptomics; virome; codivergence; vertebrate-associated DNA virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, X.-X.; Wu, W.-C.; Shi, M. Discovery and Characterization of Actively Replicating DNA and Retro-Transcribing Viruses in Lower Vertebrate Hosts Based on RNA Sequencing. Viruses 2021, 13, 1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061042

AMA Style

Chen X-X, Wu W-C, Shi M. Discovery and Characterization of Actively Replicating DNA and Retro-Transcribing Viruses in Lower Vertebrate Hosts Based on RNA Sequencing. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Xin-Xin, Wei-Chen Wu, and Mang Shi. 2021. "Discovery and Characterization of Actively Replicating DNA and Retro-Transcribing Viruses in Lower Vertebrate Hosts Based on RNA Sequencing" Viruses 13, no. 6: 1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061042

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