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Review

Long-COVID and Post-COVID Health Complications: An Up-to-Date Review on Clinical Conditions and Their Possible Molecular Mechanisms

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Laboratório de Bioinformática e Química Computacional, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Jequié, Bahia CEP 45206-190, Brazil
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Departamento de Saúde II, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Jequié, Bahia CEP 45206-190, Brazil
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Programa de Pós-graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia CEP 45662-900, Brazil
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Laboratório de Genética Celular e Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais CEP 31270-901, Brazil
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Department of Clinical Laboratories Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Computacional de Fungos, Departamento de Microbiologia, Insti-tuto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais CEP 31270-901, Brazil
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Department of Computer Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
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Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Bio-technology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721172, India
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kenneth Lundstrom and Alaa A. A. Aljabali
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040700
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 13 April 2021 / Published: 18 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines and Therapeutics against Coronaviruses)
The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions worldwide, leaving a global burden for long-term care of COVID-19 survivors. It is thus imperative to study post-COVID (i.e., short-term) and long-COVID (i.e., long-term) effects, specifically as local and systemic pathophysiological outcomes of other coronavirus-related diseases (such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)) were well-cataloged. We conducted a comprehensive review of adverse post-COVID health outcomes and potential long-COVID effects. We observed that such adverse outcomes were not localized. Rather, they affected different human systems, including: (i) immune system (e.g., Guillain–Barré syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndromes such as Kawasaki disease), (ii) hematological system (vascular hemostasis, blood coagulation), (iii) pulmonary system (respiratory failure, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pulmonary vascular damage, pulmonary fibrosis), (iv) cardiovascular system (myocardial hypertrophy, coronary artery atherosclerosis, focal myocardial fibrosis, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy), (v) gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal systems (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, acid reflux, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, lack of appetite/constipation), (vi) skeletomuscular system (immune-mediated skin diseases, psoriasis, lupus), (vii) nervous system (loss of taste/smell/hearing, headaches, spasms, convulsions, confusion, visual impairment, nerve pain, dizziness, impaired consciousness, nausea/vomiting, hemiplegia, ataxia, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage), (viii) mental health (stress, depression and anxiety). We additionally hypothesized mechanisms of action by investigating possible molecular mechanisms associated with these disease outcomes/symptoms. Overall, the COVID-19 pathology is still characterized by cytokine storm that results to endothelial inflammation, microvascular thrombosis, and multiple organ failures. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathophysiology; adverse effects; systemic effects; COVID-19; molecular mechanism pathophysiology; adverse effects; systemic effects; COVID-19; molecular mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva Andrade, B.; Siqueira, S.; de Assis Soares, W.R.; de Souza Rangel, F.; Santos, N.O.; dos Santos Freitas, A.; Ribeiro da Silveira, P.; Tiwari, S.; Alzahrani, K.J.; Góes-Neto, A.; Azevedo, V.; Ghosh, P.; Barh, D. Long-COVID and Post-COVID Health Complications: An Up-to-Date Review on Clinical Conditions and Their Possible Molecular Mechanisms. Viruses 2021, 13, 700. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040700

AMA Style

Silva Andrade B, Siqueira S, de Assis Soares WR, de Souza Rangel F, Santos NO, dos Santos Freitas A, Ribeiro da Silveira P, Tiwari S, Alzahrani KJ, Góes-Neto A, Azevedo V, Ghosh P, Barh D. Long-COVID and Post-COVID Health Complications: An Up-to-Date Review on Clinical Conditions and Their Possible Molecular Mechanisms. Viruses. 2021; 13(4):700. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040700

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva Andrade, Bruno, Sérgio Siqueira, Wagner Rodrigues de Assis Soares, Fernanda de Souza Rangel, Naiane Oliveira Santos, Andria dos Santos Freitas, Priscila Ribeiro da Silveira, Sandeep Tiwari, Khalid J Alzahrani, Aristóteles Góes-Neto, Vasco Azevedo, Preetam Ghosh, and Debmalya Barh. 2021. "Long-COVID and Post-COVID Health Complications: An Up-to-Date Review on Clinical Conditions and Their Possible Molecular Mechanisms" Viruses 13, no. 4: 700. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040700

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