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Article

Differential Influence of Age on the Relationship between Genetic Mismatch and A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine Effectiveness

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JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
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CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518000, China
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Hong Kong Hub of Paediatric Excellence, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
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Department of Pediatrics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
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CUHK-UMCU Joint Research Laboratory of Respiratory Virus & Immunobiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
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Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
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Department of Microbiology, Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Caijun Sun
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040619
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 24 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine)
Assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) and identification of relevant influencing factors are the current priorities for optimizing vaccines to reduce the impacts of influenza. To date, how the difference between epidemic strains and vaccine strains at genetic scale affects age-specific vaccine performance remains ambiguous. This study investigated the association between genetic mismatch on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes and A(H1N1)pdm09 VE in different age groups with a novel computational approach. We found significant linear relationships between VE and genetic mismatch in children, young adults, and middle-aged adults. In the children’s group, each 3-key amino acid mutation was associated with an average of 10% decrease in vaccine effectiveness in a given epidemic season, and genetic mismatch exerted no influence on VE for the elderly group. We demonstrated that present vaccines were most effective for children, while protection for the elderly was reduced and indifferent to vaccine component updates. Modeling such relationships is practical to inform timely evaluation of VE in different groups of populations during mass vaccination and may inform age-specific vaccination regimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: A(H1N1)pdm09; influenza vaccine effectiveness; age-related effects; genetic mismatch A(H1N1)pdm09; influenza vaccine effectiveness; age-related effects; genetic mismatch
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, L.; Zhao, S.; Lou, J.; Zheng, H.; Chan, R.W.Y.; Chong, M.K.C.; Chen, Z.; Chan, P.K.S.; Zee, B.C.Y.; Wang, M.H. Differential Influence of Age on the Relationship between Genetic Mismatch and A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine Effectiveness. Viruses 2021, 13, 619. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040619

AMA Style

Cao L, Zhao S, Lou J, Zheng H, Chan RWY, Chong MKC, Chen Z, Chan PKS, Zee BCY, Wang MH. Differential Influence of Age on the Relationship between Genetic Mismatch and A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine Effectiveness. Viruses. 2021; 13(4):619. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040619

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cao, Lirong, Shi Zhao, Jingzhi Lou, Hong Zheng, Renee W.Y. Chan, Marc K.C. Chong, Zigui Chen, Paul K.S. Chan, Benny C.Y. Zee, and Maggie H. Wang 2021. "Differential Influence of Age on the Relationship between Genetic Mismatch and A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccine Effectiveness" Viruses 13, no. 4: 619. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040619

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