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Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children under Five Years Old in Gabon

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné (CERMEL), Lambaréné BP 242, Gabon
Division of Viral Gastroenteritis and Hepatitis Pathogens and Enteroviruses, Department of Infectious Diseases, Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), 72074 Tübingen, Germany
Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboudumc, 6524 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Vietnamese-German Center for Medical Research (VG-CARE), Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Faculty of Medicine, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared senior authors.
Academic Editor: Albert Bosch
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 545;
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 24 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Enteric viruses are the leading cause of diarrhea in children globally. Identifying viral agents and understanding their genetic diversity could help to develop effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the detection rate and genetic diversity of four enteric viruses in Gabonese children aged below five years. Stool samples from children <5 years with (n = 177) and without (n = 67) diarrhea were collected from April 2018 to November 2019. Norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and aichivirus A were identified using PCR techniques followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. At least one viral agent was identified in 23.2% and 14.9% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants, respectively. Norovirus (14.7%) and astrovirus (7.3%) were the most prevalent in children with diarrhea, whereas in the healthy group norovirus (9%) followed by the first reported aichivirus A in Gabon (6%) were predominant. The predominant norovirus genogroup was GII, consisting mostly of genotype GII.P31-GII.4 Sydney. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3CD region of the aichivirus A genome revealed the presence of two genotypes (A and C) in the study cohort. Astrovirus and sapovirus showed a high diversity, with five different astrovirus genotypes and four sapovirus genotypes, respectively. Our findings give new insights into the circulation and genetic diversity of enteric viruses in Gabonese children. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteric viruses; children; phylogenetic analysis; diarrhea; Gabon enteric viruses; children; phylogenetic analysis; diarrhea; Gabon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Manouana, G.P.; Nguema-Moure, P.A.; Mbong Ngwese, M.; Bock, C.-T.; Kremsner, P.G.; Borrmann, S.; Eibach, D.; Mordmüller, B.; Velavan, T.P.; Niendorf, S.; Adegnika, A.A. Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children under Five Years Old in Gabon. Viruses 2021, 13, 545.

AMA Style

Manouana GP, Nguema-Moure PA, Mbong Ngwese M, Bock C-T, Kremsner PG, Borrmann S, Eibach D, Mordmüller B, Velavan TP, Niendorf S, Adegnika AA. Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children under Five Years Old in Gabon. Viruses. 2021; 13(4):545.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Manouana, Gédéon Prince, Paul Alvyn Nguema-Moure, Mirabeau Mbong Ngwese, C.-Thomas Bock, Peter G. Kremsner, Steffen Borrmann, Daniel Eibach, Benjamin Mordmüller, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan, Sandra Niendorf, and Ayola Akim Adegnika. 2021. "Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children under Five Years Old in Gabon" Viruses 13, no. 4: 545.

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