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Open AccessArticle

Metatranscriptome Analysis of Sympatric Bee Species Identifies Bee Virus Variants and a New Virus, Andrena-Associated Bee Virus-1

1
Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
2
Pollinator Health Center, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
3
The Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 5290002, Israel
4
Agroecology Lab, Newe Ya’ar Research Center, ARO, Ramat Yishay 30095, Israel
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
6
Entomology Department, ARO, The Volcani Center, Rishon Lezion 7528809, Israel
7
The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 5290002, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Eugene V. Ryabov
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020291
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Diversity of Insect Viruses)
Bees are important plant pollinators in agricultural and natural ecosystems. High average annual losses of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in some parts of the world, and regional population declines of some mining bee species (Andrena spp.), are attributed to multiple factors including habitat loss, lack of quality forage, insecticide exposure, and pathogens, including viruses. While research has primarily focused on viruses in honey bees, many of these viruses have a broad host range. It is therefore important to apply a community level approach in studying the epidemiology of bee viruses. We utilized high-throughput sequencing to evaluate viral diversity and viral sharing in sympatric, co-foraging bees in the context of habitat type. Variants of four common viruses (i.e., black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, Lake Sinai virus 2, and Lake Sinai virus NE) were identified in honey bee and mining bee samples, and the high degree of nucleotide identity in the virus consensus sequences obtained from both taxa indicates virus sharing. We discovered a unique bipartite + ssRNA Tombo-like virus, Andrena-associated bee virus-1 (AnBV-1). AnBV-1 infects mining bees, honey bees, and primary honey bee pupal cells maintained in culture. AnBV-1 prevalence and abundance was greater in mining bees than in honey bees. Statistical modeling that examined the roles of ecological factors, including floral diversity and abundance, indicated that AnBV-1 infection prevalence in honey bees was greater in habitats with low floral diversity and abundance, and that interspecific virus transmission is strongly modulated by the floral community in the habitat. These results suggest that land management strategies that aim to enhance floral diversity and abundance may reduce AnBV-1 spread between co-foraging bees. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey bee virus; Apis mellifera; Andrena; virus transmission; RNA virus; Andrena-associated bee virus-1 (AnBV-1); Lake Sinai virus; black queen cell virus; deformed wing virus; bees; pollinators; virus ecology honey bee virus; Apis mellifera; Andrena; virus transmission; RNA virus; Andrena-associated bee virus-1 (AnBV-1); Lake Sinai virus; black queen cell virus; deformed wing virus; bees; pollinators; virus ecology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daughenbaugh, K.F.; Kahnonitch, I.; Carey, C.C.; McMenamin, A.J.; Wiegand, T.; Erez, T.; Arkin, N.; Ross, B.; Wiedenheft, B.; Sadeh, A.; Chejanovsky, N.; Mandelik, Y.; Flenniken, M.L. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Sympatric Bee Species Identifies Bee Virus Variants and a New Virus, Andrena-Associated Bee Virus-1. Viruses 2021, 13, 291. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020291

AMA Style

Daughenbaugh KF, Kahnonitch I, Carey CC, McMenamin AJ, Wiegand T, Erez T, Arkin N, Ross B, Wiedenheft B, Sadeh A, Chejanovsky N, Mandelik Y, Flenniken ML. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Sympatric Bee Species Identifies Bee Virus Variants and a New Virus, Andrena-Associated Bee Virus-1. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):291. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020291

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Kahnonitch, Idan; Carey, Charles C.; McMenamin, Alexander J.; Wiegand, Tanner; Erez, Tal; Arkin, Naama; Ross, Brian; Wiedenheft, Blake; Sadeh, Asaf; Chejanovsky, Nor; Mandelik, Yael; Flenniken, Michelle L. 2021. "Metatranscriptome Analysis of Sympatric Bee Species Identifies Bee Virus Variants and a New Virus, Andrena-Associated Bee Virus-1" Viruses 13, no. 2: 291. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020291

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