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Review

How Antibodies Recognize Pathogenic Viruses: Structural Correlates of Antibody Neutralization of HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and Zika

1
Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
2
David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: David Stuart
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102106
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 9 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 19 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rosalind Franklin's 100th Birthday)
The H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010, MERS epidemic of 2012, Ebola epidemics of 2013-2016 and 2018-2020, Zika epidemic of 2015-2016, and COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-2021, are recent examples in the long history of epidemics that demonstrate the enormous global impact of viral infection. The rapid development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics has proven vital to reducing morbidity and mortality from newly emerging viruses. Structural biology methods can be used to determine how antibodies elicited during infection or vaccination target viral proteins and identify viral epitopes that correlate with potent neutralization. Here we review how structural and molecular biology approaches have contributed to our understanding of antibody recognition of pathogenic viruses, specifically HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and Zika. Determining structural correlates of neutralization of viruses has guided the design of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and small molecule inhibitors in response to the global threat of viral epidemics. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibody; cryo-electron microscopy; HIV-1; SARS-CoV-2; structural biology; virus; X-ray crystallography; Zika antibody; cryo-electron microscopy; HIV-1; SARS-CoV-2; structural biology; virus; X-ray crystallography; Zika
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abernathy, M.E.; Dam, K.-M.A.; Esswein, S.R.; Jette, C.A.; Bjorkman, P.J. How Antibodies Recognize Pathogenic Viruses: Structural Correlates of Antibody Neutralization of HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and Zika. Viruses 2021, 13, 2106. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102106

AMA Style

Abernathy ME, Dam K-MA, Esswein SR, Jette CA, Bjorkman PJ. How Antibodies Recognize Pathogenic Viruses: Structural Correlates of Antibody Neutralization of HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and Zika. Viruses. 2021; 13(10):2106. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abernathy, Morgan E., Kim-Marie A. Dam, Shannon R. Esswein, Claudia A. Jette, and Pamela J. Bjorkman. 2021. "How Antibodies Recognize Pathogenic Viruses: Structural Correlates of Antibody Neutralization of HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and Zika" Viruses 13, no. 10: 2106. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102106

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