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Article

Newlavirus, a Novel, Highly Prevalent, and Highly Diverse Protoparvovirus of Foxes (Vulpes spp.)

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Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Ave., St. John’s, NL A1B 3X9, Canada
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Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada
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Research Group on Epidemiology of Zoonoses and Public Health (GREZOSP), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
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Wildlife Division, Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Fisheries, Forestry, and Agriculture, P.O. Box 2007, Corner Brook, NL A2H 7S1, Canada
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Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave., Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
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Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave., Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
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Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Government of Canada, P.O. Box 5667, St. John’s, NL A1C 5X1, Canada
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Subir Sarker
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101969
Received: 10 September 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 30 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Wildlife Viral Diseases)
The genus Protoparvovirus (family Parvoviridae) includes several viruses of carnivores. We describe a novel fox protoparvovirus, which we named Newlavirus as it was discovered in samples from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Analysis of the full non-structural protein (NS1) sequence indicates that this virus is a previously uncharacterized species. Newlavirus showed high prevalence in foxes from both the mainland (Labrador, 54/137, 39.4%) and the island of Newfoundland (22/50, 44%) but was not detected in samples from other carnivores, including coyotes (n = 92), lynx (n = 58), martens (n = 146), mink (n = 47), ermines (n = 17), dogs (n = 48), and ringed (n = 4), harp (n = 6), bearded (n = 6), and harbor (n = 2) seals. Newlavirus was found at similar rates in stool and spleen (24/80, 30% vs. 59/152, 38.8%, p = 0.2) but at lower rates in lymph nodes (2/37, 5.4%, p < 0.01). Sequencing a fragment of approximately 750 nt of the capsid protein gene from 53 samples showed a high frequency of co-infection by more than one strain (33.9%), high genetic diversity with 13 genotypes with low sequence identities (70.5–87.8%), and no geographic segregation of strains. Given the high prevalence, high diversity, and the lack of identification in other species, foxes are likely the natural reservoir of Newlavirus, and further studies should investigate its distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: protoparvovirus; parvovirus; virus discovery; fox; carnivore protoparvovirus; parvovirus; virus discovery; fox; carnivore
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canuti, M.; Bouchard, É.; Rodrigues, B.; Whitney, H.G.; Hopson, M.; Gilroy, C.; Stenson, G.; Dufour, S.C.; Lang, A.S.; Verhoeven, J.T.P. Newlavirus, a Novel, Highly Prevalent, and Highly Diverse Protoparvovirus of Foxes (Vulpes spp.). Viruses 2021, 13, 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101969

AMA Style

Canuti M, Bouchard É, Rodrigues B, Whitney HG, Hopson M, Gilroy C, Stenson G, Dufour SC, Lang AS, Verhoeven JTP. Newlavirus, a Novel, Highly Prevalent, and Highly Diverse Protoparvovirus of Foxes (Vulpes spp.). Viruses. 2021; 13(10):1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101969

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canuti, Marta, Émilie Bouchard, Bruce Rodrigues, Hugh G. Whitney, Marti Hopson, Cornelia Gilroy, Garry Stenson, Suzanne C. Dufour, Andrew S. Lang, and Joost T. P. Verhoeven. 2021. "Newlavirus, a Novel, Highly Prevalent, and Highly Diverse Protoparvovirus of Foxes (Vulpes spp.)" Viruses 13, no. 10: 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101969

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