Next Article in Journal
MicroRNAs for Virus Pathogenicity and Host Responses, Identified in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes, May Play Roles in Viral-Host Co-Evolution in Putative Zoonotic Host Species
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Transmission Dynamics of Primary HIV Infections in Lazio Region, Years 2013–2020
Previous Article in Journal
The Pivotal Role of Viruses in the Pathogeny of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Monoclonal (Type 1) IgG K Cryoglobulinemia and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosis in the Course of a Human Metapneumovirus Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of a New HIV-1 BC Intersubtype Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF108_BC) in Spain
Open AccessArticle

Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of the Origin and Transmission Dynamics of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE Sub-Epidemic in Bulgaria

1
National Reference Laboratory of HIV, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
3
Department of Computer Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
4
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
5
Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health, 4354 Luxembourg, Luxembourg
6
Specialized Hospital for Active Treatment of Infectious & Parasitic Diseases, 1606 Sofia, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alex Compton
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010116
Received: 12 December 2020 / Revised: 13 January 2021 / Accepted: 14 January 2021 / Published: 16 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Molecular Epidemiology for Prevention 2020)
HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE is the second most predominant strain in Bulgaria, yet little is known about the molecular epidemiology of its origin and transmissibility. We used a phylodynamics approach to better understand this sub-epidemic by analyzing 270 HIV-1 polymerase (pol) sequences collected from persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 1995 and 2019. Using network analyses at a 1.5% genetic distance threshold (d), we found a large 154-member outbreak cluster composed mostly of persons who inject drugs (PWID) that were predominantly men. At d = 0.5%, which was used to identify more recent transmission, the large cluster dissociated into three clusters of 18, 12, and 7 members, respectively, five dyads, and 107 singletons. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bulgarian sequences with publicly available global sequences showed that CRF01_AE likely originated from multiple Asian countries, with Vietnam as the likely source of the outbreak cluster between 1988 and 1990. Our findings indicate that CRF01_AE was introduced into Bulgaria multiple times since 1988, and infections then rapidly spread among PWID locally with bridging to other risk groups and countries. CRF01_AE continues to spread in Bulgaria as evidenced by the more recent large clusters identified at d = 0.5%, highlighting the importance of public health prevention efforts in the PWID communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; molecular epidemiology; transmission clusters; transmission dynamics; circulating recombinant forms; drug resistance; prevention HIV-1; molecular epidemiology; transmission clusters; transmission dynamics; circulating recombinant forms; drug resistance; prevention
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Alexiev, I.; Campbell, E.M.; Knyazev, S.; Pan, Y.; Grigorova, L.; Dimitrova, R.; Partsuneva, A.; Gancheva, A.; Kostadinova, A.; Seguin-Devaux, C.; Elenkov, I.; Yancheva, N.; Switzer, W.M. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of the Origin and Transmission Dynamics of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE Sub-Epidemic in Bulgaria. Viruses 2021, 13, 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010116

AMA Style

Alexiev I, Campbell EM, Knyazev S, Pan Y, Grigorova L, Dimitrova R, Partsuneva A, Gancheva A, Kostadinova A, Seguin-Devaux C, Elenkov I, Yancheva N, Switzer WM. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of the Origin and Transmission Dynamics of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE Sub-Epidemic in Bulgaria. Viruses. 2021; 13(1):116. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alexiev, Ivailo; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Knyazev, Sergey; Pan, Yi; Grigorova, Lyubomira; Dimitrova, Reneta; Partsuneva, Aleksandra; Gancheva, Anna; Kostadinova, Asya; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Elenkov, Ivaylo; Yancheva, Nina; Switzer, William M. 2021. "Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of the Origin and Transmission Dynamics of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE Sub-Epidemic in Bulgaria" Viruses 13, no. 1: 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010116

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop