Next Article in Journal
Spatio-Temporal Mutational Profile Appearances of Swedish SARS-CoV-2 during the Early Pandemic
Next Article in Special Issue
The Emergence of a vv + MDV Can Break through the Protections Provided by the Current Vaccines
Previous Article in Journal
Stealing the Show: KSHV Hijacks Host RNA Regulatory Pathways to Promote Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 Modulates Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles of Mononuclear Cells for Efficient Dissemination to Target Organs
Article

Two Separate Tyrosine-Based YXXL/Φ Motifs within the Glycoprotein E Cytoplasmic Tail of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Contribute in Virus Anterograde Neuronal Transport

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091025
Received: 12 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Herpesviruses Pathogenesis and Immunity)
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) causes respiratory infection and abortion in cattle. Following a primary infection, BHV-1 establishes lifelong latency in the trigeminal ganglia (TG). Periodic reactivation of the latent virus in TG neurons results in anterograde virus transport to nerve endings in the nasal mucosa and nasal virus shedding. The BHV-1 glycoprotein E cytoplasmic tail (gE-CT) is necessary for virus cell-to-cell spread in epithelial cells and neuronal anterograde transport. Recently, we identified two tyrosine residues, Y467 and Y563, within the tyrosine-based motifs 467YTSL470 and 563YTVV566, which, together, account for the gE CT-mediated efficient cell-to-cell spread of BHV-1 in epithelial cells. Here, we determined that in primary neuron cultures in vitro, the individual alanine exchange Y467A or Y563A mutants had significantly diminished anterograde axonal spread. Remarkably, the double-alanine-exchanged Y467A/Y563A mutant virus was not transported anterogradely. Following intranasal infection of rabbits, both wild-type (wt) and the Y467A/Y563A mutant viruses established latency in the TG. Upon dexamethasone-induced reactivation, both wt and the mutant viruses reactivated and replicated equally efficiently in the TG. However, upon reactivation, only the wt, not the mutant, was isolated from nasal swabs. Therefore, the gE-CT tyrosine residues Y467 and Y563 together are required for gE CT-mediated anterograde neuronal transport. View Full-Text
Keywords: BHV-1; glycoprotein E; anterograde neuronal traffic; gE CT domain; YXXL/Φ sorting motifs; compartmentalized primary neurons; microfluidic chambers; reactivation from latency BHV-1; glycoprotein E; anterograde neuronal traffic; gE CT domain; YXXL/Φ sorting motifs; compartmentalized primary neurons; microfluidic chambers; reactivation from latency
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yezid, H.; Lay, C.T.; Pannhorst, K.; Chowdhury, S.I. Two Separate Tyrosine-Based YXXL/Φ Motifs within the Glycoprotein E Cytoplasmic Tail of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Contribute in Virus Anterograde Neuronal Transport. Viruses 2020, 12, 1025. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091025

AMA Style

Yezid H, Lay CT, Pannhorst K, Chowdhury SI. Two Separate Tyrosine-Based YXXL/Φ Motifs within the Glycoprotein E Cytoplasmic Tail of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Contribute in Virus Anterograde Neuronal Transport. Viruses. 2020; 12(9):1025. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yezid, Hocine, Christian T. Lay, Katrin Pannhorst, and Shafiqul I. Chowdhury 2020. "Two Separate Tyrosine-Based YXXL/Φ Motifs within the Glycoprotein E Cytoplasmic Tail of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Contribute in Virus Anterograde Neuronal Transport" Viruses 12, no. 9: 1025. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091025

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop