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Open AccessArticle

Substitution of the CD81 Binding Site and β-Sandwich Area in E2 of HCV in Cambodia

1
Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Science, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima-shi 734-8551, Japan
2
Department of Health, Binh Thuan Medical College, Binh Thuan Province, 274 Nguyen Hoi Street, Phan Thiet City 800000, Vietnam
3
Ministry of Health, Phnom Penh, No: 80, Samdach Penn Nouth Blvd (289), Sankat Beoungkak 2, Tuol Kork District, Phnom Penh 12152, Cambodia
4
University of Health Sciences, Phnom Penh, #73, Preath Moniving blvd, Sangkat Sras Chak Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh 12201, Cambodia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050551
Received: 9 May 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 16 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
The high genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main obstacle to developing a vaccine. E2 has attracted attention for vaccine development because targeting this protein could potentially overcome issues related to the genetic diversity of HCV. In this study, we analyzed HCV genes in the general population of Cambodia and investigated the E2 locus as a candidate for vaccine development. HCV sero-epidemiological surveys were conducted between the period 2010 and 2014, with an HCV RNA–positive rate of 1.3% (11/868). Follow-up blood samples were collected from four anti-HCV– and HCV RNA– positive patients (genotype 1b: 2 cases, 6e: 1 case, 6r: 1 case) after 4.12 years. Analysis of HCV full-length nucleotide sequences in paired specimens revealed that the mutation rates of HCV genotypes 1b and 6e/6r were 1.61–2.03 × 10−3 and 2.52–2.74 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year, respectively. Non-synonymous substitutions were detected in HVR1, the front layer of the CD81 binding site, and the β-sandwich, but not in the N-terminal region or adjacent to the CD81 binding site. Therefore, we conclude that the CD81 binding site is a promising locus for HCV vaccine development. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis C virus; Cambodia; general population; mutation rate; CD81 binding site hepatitis C virus; Cambodia; general population; mutation rate; CD81 binding site
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Yamamoto, C.; Nagashima, S.; Chuon, C.; Ko, K.; Huy Do, S.; Lim, O.; Hok, S.; Svay, S.; Matsuo, J.; Katayama, K.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, J. Substitution of the CD81 Binding Site and β-Sandwich Area in E2 of HCV in Cambodia. Viruses 2020, 12, 551.

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