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Open AccessArticle

Evolutionary Dynamics and Age-Dependent Pathogenesis of Sub-Genotype VI. PPMV-1 in Pigeons

by Peng Xie 1,2,3,4,†, Libin Chen 1,2,3,4,†, Yifan Zhang 1,2,3,4, Qiuyan Lin 1,2,3,4, Chan Ding 5, Ming Liao 1,2,3,4, Chenggang Xu 1,2,3,4, Bin Xiang 1,2,3,4,* and Tao Ren 1,2,3,4,*
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
Key Laboratory of Animal Vaccine Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China
National and Regional Joint Engineering Laboratory for Medicament of Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Guangzhou 510642, China
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510642, China
Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute (SHVRI), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Shanghai 200241, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 433;
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) infection causes high morbidity in pigeons, resulting in a significant burden to the poultry industry. In this study, we isolated three PPMV-1 strains from diseased pigeons collected in Guangdong Province, South China, from June 2017 to April 2019. Genetic analysis revealed that these three PPMV-1 strains and most of the PPMV-1 strains isolated from China after 2011 were clustered into sub-genotype VI. Our Bayesian analysis revealed that the VI. viruses might have originated in Europe. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that East and South China might have played a key role in seeding the VI. PPMV-1 epidemic in China. To characterize the effect of age at infection on the outcome of PPMV-1 infection in pigeons, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of the pigeon/Guangdong/GZ08/2017 (GZ08) virus in 3-, 6-, and 12-week-old pigeons. Two of six 12-week-old pigeons inoculated with GZ08 survived, and all of the 3- and 6-week-pigeons inoculated with GZ08 died. Moreover, the GZ08 virus could be transmitted to 3-, 6-, and 12-week-old naïve contact pigeons. The lethality of the GZ08 virus through contact with 3-, 6-, and 12-week-old pigeons was 100%, 66.7%, and 0%, respectively, suggesting that the transmissibility of the GZ08 virus was stronger in young pigeons. These findings demonstrated that East and South China was the epicenter for dissemination of VI. PPMV-1, and age at infection has an impact on the outcome of PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPMV-1; sub-genotype VI.; phylogenetic tree; age; pigeon; pathogenesis; transmission PPMV-1; sub-genotype VI.; phylogenetic tree; age; pigeon; pathogenesis; transmission
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Xie, P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, Q.; Ding, C.; Liao, M.; Xu, C.; Xiang, B.; Ren, T. Evolutionary Dynamics and Age-Dependent Pathogenesis of Sub-Genotype VI. PPMV-1 in Pigeons. Viruses 2020, 12, 433.

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