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Open AccessArticle

Evolutionary Dynamics and Age-Dependent Pathogenesis of Sub-Genotype VI.2.1.1.2.2 PPMV-1 in Pigeons

by Peng Xie 1,2,3,4,†, Libin Chen 1,2,3,4,†, Yifan Zhang 1,2,3,4, Qiuyan Lin 1,2,3,4, Chan Ding 5, Ming Liao 1,2,3,4, Chenggang Xu 1,2,3,4, Bin Xiang 1,2,3,4,* and Tao Ren 1,2,3,4,*
1
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Key Laboratory of Animal Vaccine Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China
3
National and Regional Joint Engineering Laboratory for Medicament of Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Guangzhou 510642, China
4
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510642, China
5
Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute (SHVRI), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Shanghai 200241, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040433
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) infection causes high morbidity in pigeons, resulting in a significant burden to the poultry industry. In this study, we isolated three PPMV-1 strains from diseased pigeons collected in Guangdong Province, South China, from June 2017 to April 2019. Genetic analysis revealed that these three PPMV-1 strains and most of the PPMV-1 strains isolated from China after 2011 were clustered into sub-genotype VI.2.1.1.2.2. Our Bayesian analysis revealed that the VI.2.1.1.2.2 viruses might have originated in Europe. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that East and South China might have played a key role in seeding the VI.2.1.1.2.2 PPMV-1 epidemic in China. To characterize the effect of age at infection on the outcome of PPMV-1 infection in pigeons, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of the pigeon/Guangdong/GZ08/2017 (GZ08) virus in 3-, 6-, and 12-week-old pigeons. Two of six 12-week-old pigeons inoculated with GZ08 survived, and all of the 3- and 6-week-pigeons inoculated with GZ08 died. Moreover, the GZ08 virus could be transmitted to 3-, 6-, and 12-week-old naïve contact pigeons. The lethality of the GZ08 virus through contact with 3-, 6-, and 12-week-old pigeons was 100%, 66.7%, and 0%, respectively, suggesting that the transmissibility of the GZ08 virus was stronger in young pigeons. These findings demonstrated that East and South China was the epicenter for dissemination of VI.2.1.1.2.2 PPMV-1, and age at infection has an impact on the outcome of PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPMV-1; sub-genotype VI.2.1.1.2.2; phylogenetic tree; age; pigeon; pathogenesis; transmission PPMV-1; sub-genotype VI.2.1.1.2.2; phylogenetic tree; age; pigeon; pathogenesis; transmission
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Xie, P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, Q.; Ding, C.; Liao, M.; Xu, C.; Xiang, B.; Ren, T. Evolutionary Dynamics and Age-Dependent Pathogenesis of Sub-Genotype VI.2.1.1.2.2 PPMV-1 in Pigeons. Viruses 2020, 12, 433.

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