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Open AccessArticle

Bacteriophage ZCSE2 is a Potent Antimicrobial against Salmonella enterica Serovars: Ultrastructure, Genomics and Efficacy

Center for Microbiology and Phage Therapy, Biomedical Sciences, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12578, Egypt
Mechanical Design and Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
Materials Science and Engineering Department, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
Division of Microbiology, Brewing and Biotechnology, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Arish University, Arish 45615, Egypt
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 424;
Received: 21 January 2020 / Revised: 22 March 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
Developing novel antimicrobials capable of controlling multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens is essential to restrict the use of antibiotics. Bacteriophages (phages) constitute a major resource that can be harnessed as an alternative to traditional antimicrobial therapies. Phage ZCSE2 was isolated among several others from raw sewage but was distinguished by broad-spectrum activity against Salmonella serovars considered pathogenic to humans and animals. Lytic profiles of ZCSE2 against a panel of Salmonella were determined together with low temperature activity and pH stability. The morphological features of the phage and host infection processes were characterized using a combination of transmission electron and atomic force microscopies. Whole genome sequencing of ZCSE2 produced a complete DNA sequence of 53,965 bp. No known virulence genes were identified in the sequence data, making ZCSE2 a good candidate for phage-mediated biological control purposes. ZCSE2 was further tested against S. Enteritidis in liquid culture and was observed to reduce the target bacterium to below the limits of detection from initial concentrations of 107–108 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mL. With a broad host-range against pathogenic Salmonella serovars, phage ZCSE2 constitutes a potential tool against a major cause of human and animal disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophage; Salmonella; phage biocontrol; atomic force microscopy bacteriophage; Salmonella; phage biocontrol; atomic force microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohamed, A.; Taha, O.; El-Sherif, H.M.; Connerton, P.L.; Hooton, S.P.; Bassim, N.D.; Connerton, I.F.; El-Shibiny, A. Bacteriophage ZCSE2 is a Potent Antimicrobial against Salmonella enterica Serovars: Ultrastructure, Genomics and Efficacy. Viruses 2020, 12, 424.

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