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Article

HIV-1C env and gag Variation in the Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma of Patients with HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Botswana

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Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana
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School of Allied Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
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Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
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Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7505, South Africa
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Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana
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Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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Centre for Global Health, Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George’s University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK
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Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Philippe Gallay
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121404
Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 26 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
HIV-1 compartmentalization in reservoir sites remains a barrier to complete HIV eradication. It is unclear whether there is variation in HIV-1 env and gag between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of individuals with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We compared HIV-1 env characteristics and the gag cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations from CSF and plasma samples. Employing population-based Sanger sequencing, we sequenced HIV-1 env from CSF of 25 patients and plasma of 26 patients. For gag, 15 CSF and 21 plasma samples were successfully sequenced. Of these, 18 and 9 were paired env and gag CSF/plasma samples, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of CCR5-using strains in the CSF and plasma, (p = 0.50). Discordant CSF/plasma virus co-receptor use was found in 2/18 pairs (11.1%). The polymorphisms in the HIV-1 V3 loop were concordant between the two compartments. From the HIV-1 gag sequences, three pairs had discordant CTL escape mutations in three different epitopes of the nine analyzed. These findings suggest little variation in the HIV-1 env between plasma and CSF and that the CCR5-using strains predominate in both compartments. HIV-1 gag CTL escape mutations also displayed little variation in CSF and plasma suggesting similar CTL selective pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: Botswana; CCR5; CXCR4; cerebrospinal fluid; co-receptor; cryptococcal meningitis; escape mutations; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); plasma Botswana; CCR5; CXCR4; cerebrospinal fluid; co-receptor; cryptococcal meningitis; escape mutations; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); plasma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kelentse, N.; Moyo, S.; Mogwele, M.L.; Ditshwanelo, D.; Mokaleng, B.; Moraka, N.O.; Lechiile, K.; Leeme, T.B.; Lawrence, D.S.; Musonda, R.; Kasvosve, I.; Harrison, T.S.; Jarvis, J.N.; Gaseitsiwe, S. HIV-1C env and gag Variation in the Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma of Patients with HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Botswana. Viruses 2020, 12, 1404. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121404

AMA Style

Kelentse N, Moyo S, Mogwele ML, Ditshwanelo D, Mokaleng B, Moraka NO, Lechiile K, Leeme TB, Lawrence DS, Musonda R, Kasvosve I, Harrison TS, Jarvis JN, Gaseitsiwe S. HIV-1C env and gag Variation in the Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma of Patients with HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Botswana. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1404. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121404

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kelentse, Nametso, Sikhulile Moyo, Mompati L. Mogwele, Doreen Ditshwanelo, Baitshepi Mokaleng, Natasha O. Moraka, Kwana Lechiile, Tshepo B. Leeme, David S. Lawrence, Rosemary Musonda, Ishmael Kasvosve, Thomas S. Harrison, Joseph N. Jarvis, and Simani Gaseitsiwe. 2020. "HIV-1C env and gag Variation in the Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma of Patients with HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Botswana" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1404. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121404

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