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Review

Potential Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Therapeutics That Target the Post-Entry Stages of the Viral Life Cycle: A Comprehensive Review

Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101092
Received: 26 July 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 26 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human and Animal Coronaviruses)
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to challenge health care systems around the world. Scientists and pharmaceutical companies have promptly responded by advancing potential therapeutics into clinical trials at an exponential rate. Initial encouraging results have been realized using remdesivir and dexamethasone. Yet, the research continues so as to identify better clinically relevant therapeutics that act either as prophylactics to prevent the infection or as treatments to limit the severity of COVID-19 and substantially decrease the mortality rate. Previously, we reviewed the potential therapeutics in clinical trials that block the early stage of the viral life cycle. In this review, we summarize potential anti-COVID-19 therapeutics that block/inhibit the post-entry stages of the viral life cycle. The review presents not only the chemical structures and mechanisms of the potential therapeutics under clinical investigation, i.e., listed in clinicaltrials.gov, but it also describes the relevant results of clinical trials. Their anti-inflammatory/immune-modulatory effects are also described. The reviewed therapeutics include small molecules, polypeptides, and monoclonal antibodies. At the molecular level, the therapeutics target viral proteins or processes that facilitate the post-entry stages of the viral infection. Frequent targets are the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the viral proteases such as papain-like protease (PLpro) and main protease (Mpro). Overall, we aim at presenting up-to-date details of anti-COVID-19 therapeutics so as to catalyze their potential effective use in fighting the pandemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; main protease; papain-like protease; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; remdesivir; dexamethasone; favipiravir; EIDD-2801 COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; main protease; papain-like protease; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; remdesivir; dexamethasone; favipiravir; EIDD-2801
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Horani, R.A.; Kar, S. Potential Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Therapeutics That Target the Post-Entry Stages of the Viral Life Cycle: A Comprehensive Review. Viruses 2020, 12, 1092. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101092

AMA Style

Al-Horani RA, Kar S. Potential Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Therapeutics That Target the Post-Entry Stages of the Viral Life Cycle: A Comprehensive Review. Viruses. 2020; 12(10):1092. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101092

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Horani, Rami A., and Srabani Kar. 2020. "Potential Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Therapeutics That Target the Post-Entry Stages of the Viral Life Cycle: A Comprehensive Review" Viruses 12, no. 10: 1092. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12101092

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