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Effect of Benzothiadiazole on the Metabolome of Tomato Plants Infected by Citrus Exocortis Viroid

Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Ciudad Politécnica de la Innovación (CPI), Ingeniero Fausto Elio s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Department of Applied Statistics and Operational Research, and Quality. Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), 46022 Valencia, Spain
Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands
College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 437;
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
PDF [2893 KB, uploaded 14 May 2019]


Benzothiadiazole (BTH) is a functional analogue of the phytohormone salycilic acid (SA) involved in the plant immune response. NahG tomato plants are unable to accumulate SA, which makes them hypersusceptible to several pathogens. Treatments with BTH increase the resistance to bacterial, fungal, viroid, or viral infections. In this study, metabolic alterations in BTH-treated Money Maker and NahG tomato plants infected by citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using multivariate data analysis, we have identified defence metabolites induced after viroid infection and BTH-treatment. Glycosylated phenolic compounds include gentisic and ferulic acid accumulated in CEVd-infected tomato plants, as well as phenylalanine, tyrosine, aspartate, glutamate, and asparagine. Besides, an increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine, adenosine, and trigonelline, contributed to a clear discrimination between the metabolome of BTH-treated tomato leaves and their corresponding controls. Among them, GABA was the only metabolite significantly accumulated in both genotypes after the chemical treatment. In view of these results, the addition of GABA was performed on tomato plants infected by CEVd, and a reversion of the NahG hypersusceptibility to CEVd was observed, indicating that GABA could regulate the resistance to CEVd induced by BTH. View Full-Text
Keywords: NMR; metabolomics; tomato; viroid; BTH; defence; NahG plants; GABA NMR; metabolomics; tomato; viroid; BTH; defence; NahG plants; GABA

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López-Gresa, M.P.; Payá, C.; Rodrigo, I.; Bellés, J.M.; Barceló, S.; Hae Choi, Y.; Verpoorte, R.; Lisón, P. Effect of Benzothiadiazole on the Metabolome of Tomato Plants Infected by Citrus Exocortis Viroid. Viruses 2019, 11, 437.

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