Environmental Surveillance for Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses: Long-Term Experience in Moscow, Russian Federation, 2004–2017
AbstractPolio and enterovirus surveillance may include a number of approaches, including incidence-based observation, a sentinel physician system, environmental monitoring and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. The relative value of these methods is widely debated. Here we summarized the results of 14 years of environmental surveillance at four sewage treatment plants of various capacities in Moscow, Russia. A total of 5450 samples were screened, yielding 1089 (20.0%) positive samples. There were 1168 viruses isolated including types 1–3 polioviruses (43%) and 29 different types of non-polio enteroviruses (51%). Despite using the same methodology, a significant variation in detection rates was observed between the treatment plants and within the same facility over time. The number of poliovirus isolates obtained from sewage was roughly 60 times higher than from AFP surveillance over the same time frame. All except one poliovirus isolate were Sabin-like polioviruses. The one isolate was vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 with 17.6% difference from the corresponding Sabin strain, suggesting long-term circulation outside the scope of the surveillance. For some non-polio enterovirus types (e.g., Echovirus 6) there was a good correlation between detection in sewage and incidence of clinical cases in a given year, while other types (e.g., Echovirus 30) could cause large outbreaks and be almost absent in sewage samples. Therefore, sewage monitoring can be an important part of enterovirus surveillance, but cannot substitute other approaches. View Full-Text
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Ivanova, O.E.; Yarmolskaya, M.S.; Eremeeva, T.P.; Babkina, G.M.; Baykova, O.Y.; Akhmadishina, L.V.; Krasota, A.Y.; Kozlovskaya, L.I.; Lukashev, A.N. Environmental Surveillance for Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses: Long-Term Experience in Moscow, Russian Federation, 2004–2017. Viruses 2019, 11, 424.
Ivanova OE, Yarmolskaya MS, Eremeeva TP, Babkina GM, Baykova OY, Akhmadishina LV, Krasota AY, Kozlovskaya LI, Lukashev AN. Environmental Surveillance for Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses: Long-Term Experience in Moscow, Russian Federation, 2004–2017. Viruses. 2019; 11(5):424.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ivanova, Olga E.; Yarmolskaya, Maria S.; Eremeeva, Tatiana P.; Babkina, Galina M.; Baykova, Olga Y.; Akhmadishina, Lyudmila V.; Krasota, Alexandr Y.; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I.; Lukashev, Alexander N. 2019. "Environmental Surveillance for Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses: Long-Term Experience in Moscow, Russian Federation, 2004–2017." Viruses 11, no. 5: 424.
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