Codon Usage Bias Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus: Higher Codon Adaptation to Citrus reticulata Host
AbstractCitrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the aphid-transmitted closterovirus group, is the causal agent of the notorious tristeza disease in several citrus species worldwide. The codon usage patterns of viruses reflect the evolutionary changes for optimization of their survival and adaptation in their fitness to the external environment and the hosts. The codon usage adaptation of CTV to specific citrus hosts remains to be studied; thus, its role in CTV evolution is not clearly comprehended. Therefore, to better explain the host–virus interaction and evolutionary history of CTV, the codon usage patterns of the coat protein (CP) genes of 122 CTV isolates originating from three economically important citrus hosts (55 isolate from Citrus sinensis, 38 from C. reticulata, and 29 from C. aurantifolia) were studied using several codon usage indices and multivariate statistical methods. The present study shows that CTV displays low codon usage bias (CUB) and higher genomic stability. Neutrality plot and relative synonymous codon usage analyses revealed that the overall influence of natural selection was more profound than that of mutation pressure in shaping the CUB of CTV. The contribution of high-frequency codon analysis and codon adaptation index value show that CTV has host-specific codon usage patterns, resulting in higheradaptability of CTV isolates originating from C. reticulata (Cr-CTV), and low adaptability in the isolates originating from C. aurantifolia (Ca-CTV) and C. sinensis (Cs-CTV). The combination of codon analysis of CTV with citrus genealogy suggests that CTV evolved in C. reticulata or other Citrus progenitors. The outcome of the study enhances the understanding of the factors involved in viral adaptation, evolution, and fitness toward their hosts. This information will definitely help devise better management strategies of CTV. View Full-Text
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Biswas, K.K.; Palchoudhury, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Bhattacharyya, U.K.; Ghosh, D.K.; Debnath, P.; Ramadugu, C.; Keremane, M.L.; Khetarpal, R.K.; Lee, R.F. Codon Usage Bias Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus: Higher Codon Adaptation to Citrus reticulata Host. Viruses 2019, 11, 331.
Biswas KK, Palchoudhury S, Chakraborty P, Bhattacharyya UK, Ghosh DK, Debnath P, Ramadugu C, Keremane ML, Khetarpal RK, Lee RF. Codon Usage Bias Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus: Higher Codon Adaptation to Citrus reticulata Host. Viruses. 2019; 11(4):331.Chicago/Turabian Style
Biswas, Kajal K.; Palchoudhury, Supratik; Chakraborty, Prosenjit; Bhattacharyya, Utpal K.; Ghosh, Dilip K.; Debnath, Palash; Ramadugu, Chandrika; Keremane, Manjunath L.; Khetarpal, Ravi K.; Lee, Richard F. 2019. "Codon Usage Bias Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus: Higher Codon Adaptation to Citrus reticulata Host." Viruses 11, no. 4: 331.
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