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Efficacy of an Adjuvanted Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Vaccine in Dromedary Camels and Alpacas

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
2
Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3
Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
4
Military HIV Research, Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
5
Flinders University and Vaxine Pty Ltd, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article.
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030212
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MERS-CoV)
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Abstract

MERS-CoV is present in dromedary camels throughout the Middle East and Africa. Dromedary camels are the primary zoonotic reservoir for human infections. Interruption of the zoonotic transmission chain from camels to humans, therefore, may be an effective strategy to control the ongoing MERS-CoV outbreak. Here we show that vaccination with an adjuvanted MERS-CoV Spike protein subunit vaccine confers complete protection from MERS-CoV disease in alpaca and results in reduced and delayed viral shedding in the upper airways of dromedary camels. Protection in alpaca correlates with high serum neutralizing antibody titers. Lower titers of serum neutralizing antibodies correlate with delayed and significantly reduced shedding in the nasal turbinates of dromedary camels. Together, these data indicate that induction of robust neutralizing humoral immune responses by vaccination of naïve animals reduces shedding that potentially could diminish the risk of zoonotic transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: MERS-CoV; camels; vaccines; One Health MERS-CoV; camels; vaccines; One Health
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Adney, D.R.; Wang, L.; van Doremalen, N.; Shi, W.; Zhang, Y.; Kong, W.-P.; Miller, M.R.; Bushmaker, T.; Scott, D.; de Wit, E.; Modjarrad, K.; Petrovsky, N.; Graham, B.S.; Bowen, R.A.; Munster, V.J. Efficacy of an Adjuvanted Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein Vaccine in Dromedary Camels and Alpacas. Viruses 2019, 11, 212.

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