Next Article in Journal
Drug Repurposing Campaigns for Human Cytomegalovirus Identify a Natural Compound Targeting the Immediate-Early 2 (IE2) Protein: A Comment on “The Natural Flavonoid Compound Deguelin Inhibits HCMV Lytic Replication within Fibroblasts”
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Host and Bacterial Contributions to Lung Barrier Dysfunction Following Co-infection with 2009 Pandemic Influenza and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 115;

New Method for Differentiation of Granuloviruses (Betabaculoviruses) Based on Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Real-Time PCR)

Laboratory of Recombinant Vaccines, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology of University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, University of Gdansk, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
Centre for Biological Control, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estacao Biológica, Brasilia 70770-900, Brazil
Citrus Research International (CRI), P.O. Box 5095, Walmer 6065, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Pest Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5651 KB, uploaded 1 February 2019]   |  


Baculoviridae is a highly diverse family of rod-shaped viruses with double-stranded DNA. To date, almost 100 species have had their complete genomic sequences deposited in the GenBank database, a quarter of which comprises granuloviruses (GVs). Many of the genomes are sequenced using next-generation sequencing, which is currently considered the best method for characterizing new species, but it is time-consuming and expensive. Baculoviruses form a safe alternative to overused chemical pesticides and therefore there is a constant need for identifying new species that can be active components of novel biological insecticides. In this study, we have described a fast and reliable method for the detection of new and differentiation of previously analyzed granulovirus species based on a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with melting point curve analysis. The sequences of highly conserved baculovirus genes, such as granulin and late expression factors 8 and 9 (lef-8 and lef-9), derived from GVs available to date have been analyzed and used for degenerate primer design. The developed method was tested on a representative group of eight betabaculoviruses with comparisons of melting temperatures to allow for quick and preliminary granulovirus detection. The proposed real-time PCR procedure may be a very useful tool as an easily accessible screening method in a majority of laboratories. View Full-Text
Keywords: betabaculovirus; detection; real-time PCR; lef-9; lef-8; granulin betabaculovirus; detection; real-time PCR; lef-9; lef-8; granulin

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Krejmer-Rabalska, M.; Rabalski, L.; Jukes, M.D.; Lobo de Souza, M.; Moore, S.D.; Szewczyk, B. New Method for Differentiation of Granuloviruses (Betabaculoviruses) Based on Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Real-Time PCR). Viruses 2019, 11, 115.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top