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Open AccessArticle

Antigenic Change in Human Influenza A(H2N2) Viruses Detected by Using Human Plasma from Aged and Younger Adult Individuals

1
Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
2
Center for Supercentenarian Medical Research, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
3
Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, Doctor Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Special Pathogens, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
5
Influenza Research Institute, Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110978
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Human influenza A(H2N2) viruses emerged in 1957 and were replaced by A(H3N2) viruses in 1968. The antigenicity of human H2N2 viruses has been tested by using ferret antisera or mouse and human monoclonal antibodies. Here, we examined the antigenicity of human H2N2 viruses by using human plasma samples obtained from 50 aged individuals who were born between 1928 and 1933 and from 33 younger adult individuals who were born after 1962. The aged individuals possessed higher neutralization titers against H2N2 viruses isolated in 1957 and 1963 than those against H2N2 viruses isolated in 1968, whereas the younger adults who were born between 1962 and 1968 possessed higher neutralization titers against H2N2 viruses isolated in 1963 than those against other H2N2 viruses. Antigenic cartography revealed the antigenic changes that occurred in human H2N2 viruses during circulation in humans for 11 years, as detected by ferret antisera. These results show that even though aged individuals were likely exposed to more recent H2N2 viruses that are antigenically distinct from the earlier H2N2 viruses, they did not possess high neutralizing antibody titers to the more recent viruses, suggesting immunological imprinting of these individuals with the first H2N2 viruses they encountered and that this immunological imprinting lasts for over 50 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza A virus; aged individuals; H2N2; antigenic drift; antigenic change influenza A virus; aged individuals; H2N2; antigenic drift; antigenic change
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Matsuzawa, Y.; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, K.; Nishimoto, Y.; Abe, Y.; Fukuyama, S.; Hamabata, T.; Okuda, M.; Go, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Imai, M.; Arai, Y.; Fouchier, R.A.; Yamayoshi, S.; Kawaoka, Y. Antigenic Change in Human Influenza A(H2N2) Viruses Detected by Using Human Plasma from Aged and Younger Adult Individuals. Viruses 2019, 11, 978.

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