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Viruses 2018, 10(8), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080435

Prospects in Innate Immune Responses as Potential Control Strategies against Non-Primate Lentiviruses

1
Instituto de Agrobiotecnología (IdAB), UPNA-CSIC-Gobierno de Navarra, Navarra 31192, Spain
2
Dpto. Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain
3
Malattie Infettive degli Animali Domestici, Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino 10095, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
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Abstract

Lentiviruses are infectious agents of a number of animal species, including sheep, goats, horses, monkeys, cows, and cats, in addition to humans. As in the human case, the host immune response fails to control the establishment of chronic persistent infection that finally leads to a specific disease development. Despite intensive research on the development of lentivirus vaccines, it is still not clear which immune responses can protect against infection. Viral mutations resulting in escape from T-cell or antibody-mediated responses are the basis of the immune failure to control the infection. The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against viral infections in an antigen-independent manner. Antiviral innate responses are conducted by dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells, often targeted by lentiviruses, and intrinsic antiviral mechanisms exerted by all cells. Intrinsic responses depend on the recognition of the viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), and the signaling cascades leading to an antiviral state by inducing the expression of antiviral proteins, including restriction factors. This review describes the latest advances on innate immunity related to the infection by animal lentiviruses, centered on small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and feline (FIV) and bovine immunodeficiency viruses (BIV), specifically focusing on the antiviral role of the major restriction factors described thus far. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-primate lentivirus; control strategies; innate immunity; restriction factors non-primate lentivirus; control strategies; innate immunity; restriction factors
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de Pablo-Maiso, L.; Doménech, A.; Echeverría, I.; Gómez-Arrebola, C.; de Andrés, D.; Rosati, S.; Gómez-Lucia, E.; Reina, R. Prospects in Innate Immune Responses as Potential Control Strategies against Non-Primate Lentiviruses. Viruses 2018, 10, 435.

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