Next Article in Journal
Pseudomonas PB1-Like Phages: Whole Genomes from Metagenomes Offer Insight into an Abundant Group of Bacteriophages
Next Article in Special Issue
Tick-Borne Flaviviruses and the Type I Interferon Response
Previous Article in Journal
Host Long Noncoding RNA lncRNA-PAAN Regulates the Replication of Influenza A Virus
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060329

Viral Determinants of Virulence in Tick-Borne Flaviviruses

1
Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
2
School of Medical Sciences, Orebro University, SE-703 62 Örebro, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1070 KB, uploaded 16 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Tick-borne flaviviruses have a global distribution and cause significant human disease, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and often result in neurologic sequelae. There are two distinct properties that determine the neuropathogenesis of a virus. The ability to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is referred to as the neuroinvasiveness of the agent, while the ability to infect and damage cells within the CNS is referred to as its neurovirulence. Examination of laboratory variants, cDNA clones, natural isolates with varying pathogenicity, and virally encoded immune evasion strategies have contributed extensively to our understanding of these properties. Here we will review the major viral determinants of virulence that contribute to pathogenesis and influence both neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence properties of tick-borne flaviviruses, focusing particularly on the envelope protein (E), nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), and the 3′ untranslated region (UTR). View Full-Text
Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; tick-borne flavivirus; virulence; neuropathogenesis tick-borne encephalitis virus; tick-borne flavivirus; virulence; neuropathogenesis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kellman, E.M.; Offerdahl, D.K.; Melik, W.; Bloom, M.E. Viral Determinants of Virulence in Tick-Borne Flaviviruses. Viruses 2018, 10, 329.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top