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Viruses 2018, 10(6), 329;

Viral Determinants of Virulence in Tick-Borne Flaviviruses

Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
School of Medical Sciences, Orebro University, SE-703 62 Örebro, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
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Tick-borne flaviviruses have a global distribution and cause significant human disease, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and often result in neurologic sequelae. There are two distinct properties that determine the neuropathogenesis of a virus. The ability to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is referred to as the neuroinvasiveness of the agent, while the ability to infect and damage cells within the CNS is referred to as its neurovirulence. Examination of laboratory variants, cDNA clones, natural isolates with varying pathogenicity, and virally encoded immune evasion strategies have contributed extensively to our understanding of these properties. Here we will review the major viral determinants of virulence that contribute to pathogenesis and influence both neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence properties of tick-borne flaviviruses, focusing particularly on the envelope protein (E), nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), and the 3′ untranslated region (UTR). View Full-Text
Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; tick-borne flavivirus; virulence; neuropathogenesis tick-borne encephalitis virus; tick-borne flavivirus; virulence; neuropathogenesis

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Kellman, E.M.; Offerdahl, D.K.; Melik, W.; Bloom, M.E. Viral Determinants of Virulence in Tick-Borne Flaviviruses. Viruses 2018, 10, 329.

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