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Absence of A3Z3-Related Hypermutations in the env and vif Proviral Genes in FIV Naturally Infected Cats

Virology Laboratory, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Sarmento Leite 500, Porto Alegre, RS CEP 90150-070, Brazil
Health Science Department, UniRitter Laureate International Universities, Rua Orfanotrófio, 555, Alto Teresópolis, Porto Alegre, RS CEP 90840-440C, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 296;
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
PDF [335 KB, uploaded 31 May 2018]


Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) proteins comprise an important family of restriction factors that produce hypermutations on proviral DNA and are able to limit virus replication. Vif, an accessory protein present in almost all lentiviruses, counteracts the antiviral A3 activity. Seven haplotypes of APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3) were described in domestic cats (hap I–VII), and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that these proteins reduce infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Moreover, hap V is resistant to vif-mediated degradation. However, studies on the effect of A3Z3 in FIV-infected cats have not been developed. Here, the correlation between APOBEC A3Z3 haplotypes in domestic cats and the frequency of hypermutations in the FIV vif and env genes were assessed in a retrospective cohort study with 30 blood samples collected between 2012 and 2016 from naturally FIV-infected cats in Brazil. The vif and env sequences were analyzed and displayed low or undetectable levels of hypermutations, and could not be associated with any specific A3Z3 haplotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: APOBEC3; FIV; hypermutations; cats APOBEC3; FIV; hypermutations; cats
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cano-Ortiz, L.; Maletich Junqueira, D.; Comerlato, J.; Zani, A.; Santos Costa, C.; Michel Roehe, P.; Franco, A.C. Absence of A3Z3-Related Hypermutations in the env and vif Proviral Genes in FIV Naturally Infected Cats. Viruses 2018, 10, 296.

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