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Oropouche Fever: A Review

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Microbiology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 175;
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Oropouche fever is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Oropouche virus (OROV), an arthropod transmitted Orthobunyavirus circulating in South and Central America. During the last 60 years, more than 30 epidemics and over half a million clinical cases attributed to OROV infection have been reported in Brazil, Peru, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago. OROV fever is considered the second most frequent arboviral febrile disease in Brazil after dengue fever. OROV is transmitted through both urban and sylvatic transmission cycles, with the primary vector in the urban cycle being the anthropophilic biting midge Culicoides paraensis. Currently, there is no evidence of direct human-to-human OROV transmission. OROV fever is usually either undiagnosed due to its mild, self-limited manifestations or misdiagnosed because its clinical characteristics are similar to dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever, including malaria as well. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment, and in the absence of a vaccine for effective prophylaxis of human populations in endemic areas, the disease prevention relies solely on vector control strategies and personal protection measures. OROV fever is considered to have the potential to spread across the American continent and under favorable climatic conditions may expand its geographic distribution to other continents. In view of OROV’s emergence, increased interest for formerly neglected tropical diseases and within the One Health concept, the existing knowledge and gaps of knowledge on OROV fever are reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Oropouche virus; OROV disease; arbovirus; Culicoides; Amazon Oropouche virus; OROV disease; arbovirus; Culicoides; Amazon

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Sakkas, H.; Bozidis, P.; Franks, A.; Papadopoulou, C. Oropouche Fever: A Review. Viruses 2018, 10, 175.

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