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New Insights into the Evolutionary and Genomic Landscape of Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) based on Nine MCV1 and Six MCV2 Complete Genome Sequences

1
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Dermatovenereology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska ulica 5, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
4
Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
5
Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Taborska Ulica 6b, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110586
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is the sole member of the Molluscipoxvirus genus and the causative agent of molluscum contagiosum (MC), a common skin disease. Although it is an important and frequent human pathogen, its genetic landscape and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. In this study, ten novel complete MCV genome sequences of the two most common MCV genotypes were determined (five MCV1 and five MCV2 sequences) and analyzed together with all MCV complete genomes previously deposited in freely accessible sequence repositories (four MCV1 and a single MCV2). In comparison to MCV1, a higher degree of nucleotide sequence conservation was observed among MCV2 genomes. Large-scale recombination events were identified in two newly assembled MCV1 genomes and one MCV2 genome. One recombination event was located in a newly identified recombinant region of the viral genome, and all previously described recombinant regions were re-identified in at least one novel MCV genome. MCV genes comprising the identified recombinant segments have been previously associated with viral interference with host T-cell and NK-cell immune responses. In conclusion, the two most common MCV genotypes emerged along divergent evolutionary pathways from a common ancestor, and the differences in the heterogeneity of MCV1 and MCV2 populations may be attributed to the strictness of the constraints imposed by the host immune response. View Full-Text
Keywords: molluscum contagiosum virus; complete genome; recombination; immune evasion; evolution; genetic landscape molluscum contagiosum virus; complete genome; recombination; immune evasion; evolution; genetic landscape
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Zorec, T.M.; Kutnjak, D.; Hošnjak, L.; Kušar, B.; Trčko, K.; Kocjan, B.J.; Li, Y.; Križmarić, M.; Miljković, J.; Ravnikar, M.; Poljak, M. New Insights into the Evolutionary and Genomic Landscape of Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) based on Nine MCV1 and Six MCV2 Complete Genome Sequences. Viruses 2018, 10, 586.

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