Next Article in Journal
Severity of Overstory Mortality Influences Conifer Recruitment and Growth in Mountain Pine Beetle-Affected Forests
Next Article in Special Issue
Erratum: Drössler, L., et al. Over- and Underyielding in Time and Space in Experiments with Mixed Stands of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce. Forests 2018, 9, 495.
Previous Article in Journal
Potential of Mild Torrefaction for Upgrading the Wood Energy Value of Different Eucalyptus Species
Previous Article in Special Issue
Estimation and Uncertainty of the Mixing Effects on Scots Pine—European Beech Productivity from National Forest Inventories Data
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2018, 9(9), 534;

Ecological Interactions between Cork Oak (Quercus suber L.) and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea L.): Results from a Pot Experiment

Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competition and Facilitation in Mixed Species Forests)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2772 KB, uploaded 1 September 2018]   |  


Portuguese cork oak (Quercus suber L.) extended mortality and lack of regeneration have been the drivers of important changes in the traditional cork oak woodlands (savanna-like) montado. The decrease in tree cover fosters the mixture with stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) for pine-nut production providing shelter for oak regeneration. The use of nurse species, namely pines, to help Quercus spp. regeneration is known, but whether cork oak could be favoured by the mixture with stone pine remains a question. A pot experiment with cork oak (Qs) and stone pine (Pp) growing in inter-(Qs×Pp) and intraspecific mixtures (Qs×Qs, Pp×Pp) combinations and in monocultures, was installed in a greenhouse in Lisbon, Portugal. Morphological measurements of above- and belowground biomass components were carried out in 3 harvesting campaigns at 4, 8 and 11 months. Leaf nitrogen content and mycorrhizal symbiotic formations were quantified. During the seedling stage and under comfort water and nutrient conditions, the root growth and morphology of Qs and Pp showed contrasting patterns, suggesting complementary soil exploitation interactions in interspecific mixtures and potential competition in intraspecific mixtures. The mixture of Qs with Pp seems to be advantageous in the first stages of plant growth as Pp develop abundant mycorrhizae symbiosis formations which elicit mycorrhization of Qs plants coexisting in the same pot. This study suggests that stone pine can potentially help in establishing cork oak as seedlings, possibly facilitating nutrient uptake through mycorrhizae. However, complementary field studies are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: competition; facilitation; complementarity; Mediterranean; mixed forest; greenhouse; mycorrhizae symbiosis competition; facilitation; complementarity; Mediterranean; mixed forest; greenhouse; mycorrhizae symbiosis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Correia, A.C.; Galla, A.; Nunes, A.; Pereira, J.S. Ecological Interactions between Cork Oak (Quercus suber L.) and Stone Pine (Pinus pinea L.): Results from a Pot Experiment. Forests 2018, 9, 534.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top