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Forests 2018, 9(8), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080445

Patterns in Ectomycorrhizal Diversity, Community Composition, and Exploration Types in European Beech, Pine, and Spruce Forests

1
Institute of Forest Ecology, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1190 Vienna, Austria
2
Global Change Research Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Department of Landscape Carbon Deposition, 37001 Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ecology of Fine Roots and Mycorrhizas in Forests)
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Abstract

Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are pivotal drivers of ecosystem functioning in temperate and boreal forests. They constitute an important pathway for plant-derived carbon into the soil and facilitate nitrogen and phosphorus acquisition. However, the mechanisms that drive ectomycorrhizal diversity and community composition are still subject to discussion. We investigated patterns in ectomycorrhizal diversity, community composition, and exploration types on root tips in Fagus sylvatica,Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris stands across Europe. Host tree species is the most important factor shaping the ectomycorrhizal community as well as the distribution of exploration types. Moreover, abiotic factors such as soil properties, N deposition, temperature, and precipitation, were found to significantly influence EM diversity and community composition. A clear differentiation into functional traits by means of exploration types was shown for all ectomycorrhizal communities across the three analyzed tree species. Contact and short-distance exploration types were clearly significantly more abundant than cord- or rhizomorph-forming long-distance exploration types of EM fungi. Medium-distance exploration types were significantly lower in abundance than contact and short-distance types, however they were the most frequent EM taxa and constituted nearly half of the EM community. Furthermore, EM taxa exhibit distinct ecological ranges, and the type of soil exploration seemed to determine whether EM taxa have small or rather big environmental ranges. View Full-Text
Keywords: ectomycorrhizal community composition; ectomycorrhizal diversity; exploration types; Fagus sylvatica; Picea abies; Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal community composition; ectomycorrhizal diversity; exploration types; Fagus sylvatica; Picea abies; Pinus sylvestris
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rosinger, C.; Sandén, H.; Matthews, B.; Mayer, M.; Godbold, D.L. Patterns in Ectomycorrhizal Diversity, Community Composition, and Exploration Types in European Beech, Pine, and Spruce Forests. Forests 2018, 9, 445.

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