Next Article in Journal
Kinetic Analysis of the Color of Larch Sapwood and Heartwood during Heat Treatment
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Whole-Tree Wood Property Maps for 13- and 22-Year-Old Loblolly Pine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Shearing Systems for Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri) Christmas Trees
Article

Analysis of Nitrogen Utilization Capability during the Proliferation and Maturation Phases of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) Somatic Embryogenesis

1
Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden
2
BioCentre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
3
G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2018, 9(6), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060288
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a laboratory-based method that allows for cost-effective production of large numbers of clonal copies of plants, of particular interest for conifers where other clonal propagation methods are mostly unavailable. In this study, the effect of l-glutamine as an organic nitrogen source was evaluated for three contrasted media (containing NH4 + NO3 without glutamine, or glutamine + NO3, or glutamine without inorganic nitrogen) during proliferation and maturation of Norway spruce somatic embryos through analyses of activities of the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism: nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and arginase. A major change in nitrogen metabolism was indicated by the increased activity of GS from zero in the proliferation stage through maturation to high activity in somatic embryo-derived plantlets; furthermore, NR activity increased from zero at the proliferation stage to high activity in maturing embryos and somatic-embryo derived plantlets. In contrast, arginase activity was high at all stages. In accordance with the GS and NR data, proliferation was fastest on the glutamine media, the largest number of mature embryos developed on the glutamine medium without inorganic nitrogen, and the ammonium content of proliferating cultures was much higher than that of mature somatic embryos. The best developed embryos, judged by germination, were from the glutamine + NO3 medium. These insights into nitrogen utilization will help to improve culture medium composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: conifers; somatic embryo development; ammonium; nitrate; glutamine; enzyme activities conifers; somatic embryo development; ammonium; nitrate; glutamine; enzyme activities
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dahrendorf, J.; Clapham, D.; Egertsdotter, U. Analysis of Nitrogen Utilization Capability during the Proliferation and Maturation Phases of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) Somatic Embryogenesis. Forests 2018, 9, 288. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060288

AMA Style

Dahrendorf J, Clapham D, Egertsdotter U. Analysis of Nitrogen Utilization Capability during the Proliferation and Maturation Phases of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) Somatic Embryogenesis. Forests. 2018; 9(6):288. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060288

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dahrendorf, Julia, David Clapham, and Ulrika Egertsdotter. 2018. "Analysis of Nitrogen Utilization Capability during the Proliferation and Maturation Phases of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) Somatic Embryogenesis" Forests 9, no. 6: 288. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060288

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop