Next Article in Journal
Fifty-Six Years of Forest Development Following the 1938 Hurricane in Hillsborough, New Hampshire, USA
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Microbial Diversity and Greenhouse Gas Production of Decaying Pine Logs
Open AccessArticle

Seed Production, Viability, and Reproductive Limits of the Invasive Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-Heaven) within Invaded Environments

Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
The Davey Tree Expert Company, Horsham, PA 19044, USA
Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This is scientific article number 3318 of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.
Forests 2017, 8(7), 226;
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF [2255 KB, uploaded 2 July 2017]


The success of some invasive tree species is attributed, in part, to high fecundity in the form of sexual propagules. If invasive trees produce more seed annually than co-occurring native trees, they will have a greater ability to disperse and establish across the landscape. In this study, seed production of female Ailanthus trees was investigated to determine (1) reproductive age limits; (2) annual and cumulative seed output; and (3) seed viability. Existing data on Ailanthus seed production were combined with a novel dataset to compare variability in seed production and explore relationships with tree diameter and age. Results from this study showed Ailanthus’ reproductive window is exceptional, spanning more than a century, with seed viability exceeding 65% from a 104-year-old individual. Germination studies and complementary tetrazolium assays also confirmed high propagule viability from a 7-year-old Ailanthus and supports tetrazolium assays as a proxy for germination studies. Not only can individual Ailanthus produce >1 million seeds annually, but a significant relationship exists between seed production and tree diameter. Using this relationship, cumulative seed production in individual Ailanthus can reach ca. 10 and 52 million seeds over a 40-year and 100-year period, respectively. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of various facets of the reproductive potential of Ailanthus. View Full-Text
Keywords: fecundity; forest invasions; invasive species; propagule pressure; seed viability fecundity; forest invasions; invasive species; propagule pressure; seed viability

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wickert, K.L.; O’Neal, E.S.; Davis, D.D.; Kasson, M.T. Seed Production, Viability, and Reproductive Limits of the Invasive Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-Heaven) within Invaded Environments. Forests 2017, 8, 226.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top