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Article

Vicariance and Oceanic Barriers Drive Contemporary Genetic Structure of Widespread Mangrove Species Sonneratia alba J. Sm in the Indo-West Pacific

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Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Conservation, College of Forestry, Guangxi University, Daxuedonglu 100, Nanning 530004, China
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Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
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Iriomote Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, 870 Uehara, Taketomi-cho, Yaeyama-gun, Okinawa 907-1541, Japan
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Museum of Natural and Environmental History, Shizuoka, 5762 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka-shi, Shizuoka 422-8017, Japan
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Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
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Biotechnology Programme, M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai 600113, India
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Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
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Bali Botanical Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bali 82191, Indonesia
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Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto 53122, Indonesia
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Forest Biology Department, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
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Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Malaysia
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Mangrove Ecosystem Research Centre, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi 123112, Vietnam
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Department of Environmental Science, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
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Biology Department, College of Science and Technology, Adventist University of the Philippines, Silang, Cavite 4118, Philippines
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Department of Forest Management, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Botany, University of Yangon, Yangon 11041, Myanmar
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Faculty of Education, University of the Ryukyus, Sembaru 903-0129, Japan
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Sugadaira Research Station, Mountain Science Center, University of Tsukuba, 1278-294 Sugadairakogen, Ueda, Nagano 386-2204, Japan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2017, 8(12), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8120483
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
Patterns of genetic structure are essential for a comprehensive understanding of the evolution and biogeography of a species. Here, we investigated the genetic patterns of one of the most widespread and abundant mangrove species in the Indo-West Pacific, Sonneratia alba J. Sm., in order to gain insights into the ecological and evolutionary drivers of genetic structure in mangroves. We employed 11 nuclear microsatellite loci and two chloroplast regions to genotyped 25 S. alba populations. Our objectives were to (1) assess the level of genetic diversity and its geographic distribution; and (2) determine the genetic structure of the populations. Our results revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations. We detected a major genetic break between Indo-Malesia and Australasia, and further population subdivision within each oceanic region in these two major clusters. The phylogeographic patterns indicated a strong influence of vicariance, oceanic barriers and geographic distance on genetic structure. In addition, we found low genetic diversity and high genetic drift at range edge. This study advances the scope of mangrove biogeography by demonstrating a unique scenario whereby a widespread species has limited dispersal and high genetic divergence among populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: biogeography; gene flow; genetic diversity; genetic divergence; phylogeography; sea dispersal biogeography; gene flow; genetic diversity; genetic divergence; phylogeography; sea dispersal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wee, A.K.S.; Teo, J.X.H.; Chua, J.L.; Takayama, K.; Asakawa, T.; Meenakshisundaram, S.H.; Onrizal; Adjie, B.; Ardli, E.R.; Sungkaew, S.; Suleiman, M.; Tung, N.X.; Salmo, S.G., III; Yllano, O.B.; Saleh, M.N.; Soe, K.K.; Tateishi, Y.; Watano, Y.; Tsuda, Y.; Kajita, T.; Webb, E.L. Vicariance and Oceanic Barriers Drive Contemporary Genetic Structure of Widespread Mangrove Species Sonneratia alba J. Sm in the Indo-West Pacific. Forests 2017, 8, 483. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8120483

AMA Style

Wee AKS, Teo JXH, Chua JL, Takayama K, Asakawa T, Meenakshisundaram SH, Onrizal, Adjie B, Ardli ER, Sungkaew S, Suleiman M, Tung NX, Salmo SG III, Yllano OB, Saleh MN, Soe KK, Tateishi Y, Watano Y, Tsuda Y, Kajita T, Webb EL. Vicariance and Oceanic Barriers Drive Contemporary Genetic Structure of Widespread Mangrove Species Sonneratia alba J. Sm in the Indo-West Pacific. Forests. 2017; 8(12):483. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8120483

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wee, Alison K.S., Jessica X.H. Teo, Jasher L. Chua, Koji Takayama, Takeshi Asakawa, Sankararamasubramanian H. Meenakshisundaram, Onrizal, Bayu Adjie, Erwin R. Ardli, Sarawood Sungkaew, Monica Suleiman, Nguyen X. Tung, Severino G. Salmo III, Orlex B. Yllano, M. N. Saleh, Khin K. Soe, Yoichi Tateishi, Yasuyuki Watano, Yoshiaki Tsuda, Tadashi Kajita, and Edward L. Webb 2017. "Vicariance and Oceanic Barriers Drive Contemporary Genetic Structure of Widespread Mangrove Species Sonneratia alba J. Sm in the Indo-West Pacific" Forests 8, no. 12: 483. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8120483

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