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Forests 2017, 8(12), 480;

Genetic Structure and Population Demographic History of a Widespread Mangrove Plant Xylocarpus granatum J. Koenig across the Indo-West Pacific Region

Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
Sugadaira Research Station, Mountain Science Center, University of Tsukuba, 1278-294 Sugadairakogen, Ueda, Nagano 386-2204, Japan
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Iriomote Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, 870 Uehara, Taketomi-cho, Yaeyama-gun, Okinawa 907-1541, Japan
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Coservation, College of Forestry, Guangxi University, Nanning 530000, China
Museum of Natural and Environmental History, Shizuoka, 5762 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8017, Japan
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
Biology Department, College of Sciences and Technology, Adventist University of the Philippines, Putting Kahoy, 4118 Silang, Cavite, Philippines
Department of Environmental Science, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, 1108 Quezon City, Philippines
Forest Biology Department, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, 50 Ngamwongwan Rd., ChatuChak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Bali Botanical Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Candikuning, Baturiti, Tabanan, Bali 82191, Indonesia
Faculty of Biology, Jenderal Soedirman University, Jalan Dr. Suparno 63, Purwokerto 53122, Indonesia
Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Mangrove Ecosystem Research Centre, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, Vietnam
Department of Botany, University of Yangon, Kamayut 11041, Yangon, Myanmar
Center of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Science, Annamalai University, Parangipettai, 608 502 Tamil Nadu, India
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: Seed Production Department, Kaneko Seeds Co. Ltd. 50-12, Furuichimachi 1-chome, Mabashi City 371-8503, Japan.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Forest Trees)
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Xylocarpus granatum J. Koenig is one of the most widespread core component species of mangrove forests in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region, and as such is suitable for examining how genetic structure is generated across spatiotemporal scales. We evaluated the genetic structure of this species using maternally inherited chloroplast (cp) and bi-parentally inherited nuclear DNA markers, with samples collected across the species range. Both cp and nuclear DNA showed generally similar patterns, revealing three genetic groups in the Indian Ocean, South China Sea (with Palau), and Oceania, respectively. The genetic diversity of the Oceania group was significantly lower, and the level of population differentiation within the Oceania group was significantly higher, than in the South China Sea group. These results revealed that in addition to the Malay Peninsula—a common land barrier for mangroves—there is a genetic barrier in an oceanic region of the West Pacific that prevents gene flow among populations. Moreover, demographic inference suggested that these patterns were generated in relation to sea level changes during the last glacial period and the emergence of Sahul Shelf which lied northwest of Australia. We propose that the three genetic groups should be considered independent conservation units, and that the Oceania group has a higher conservation priority. View Full-Text
Keywords: demographic inference; genetic structure; mangrove; seed dispersal; ocean current; Indo-West Pacific region; Xylocarpus demographic inference; genetic structure; mangrove; seed dispersal; ocean current; Indo-West Pacific region; Xylocarpus

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Tomizawa, Y.; Tsuda, Y.; Saleh, M.N.; Wee, A.K.S.; Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Yllano, O.B.; Salmo III, S.G.; Sungkaew, S.; Adjie, B.; Ardli, E.; Suleiman, M.; Tung, N.X.; Soe, K.K.; Kandasamy, K.; Asakawa, T.; Watano, Y.; Baba, S.; Kajita, T. Genetic Structure and Population Demographic History of a Widespread Mangrove Plant Xylocarpus granatum J. Koenig across the Indo-West Pacific Region. Forests 2017, 8, 480.

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