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Forests 2016, 7(12), 319;

Effect of Timber Harvest Intensities and Fertilizer Application on Stocks of Soil C, N, P, and S

School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
Forest Science Department, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba SP 13418-900, Brazil
Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13416-000, Brazil
Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro 23890-000, Brazil
Forest Science and Research Institute (IPEF), Piracicaba, São Paulo 13400-970 Private Bag 530, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Scott X. Chang and Xiangyang Sun
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Cycling and Plant Nutrition in Forest Ecosystems)
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The purpose of this study was to determine the stocks of available P and S, total N, and oxidizable C at depth in an Oxisol cultivated with Eucalyptus in Brazil following different timber harvest intensities and fertilizer application over 12 years. The harvest regimes considered were (i) conventional stem-only harvest (all forest residues were maintained on the soil); (ii) whole-tree harvest (only litter was maintained on the soil—all slash, stemwood, and bark were removed); and (iii) whole-tree harvest + litter layer removal. The site was planted in 2004 considering three timber harvest intensities, some with and some without N and P fertilization. In 2012 the experiment was reinstalled, and all the treatments were reapplied in the each plot. From 2004 to 2016, nutrient accumulation and soil N, P, and S stocks were assessed in the 0–20 cm layer. Also in 2016, soil N, P, S, and oxidizable C stocks were measured to 2 m depth. For each treatment, the net balance of N, P, and S were calculated from soil stocks and harvest outputs during two forest rotations. A reduction in all nutrient stocks was observed in the 0–20 cm layer for all treatments. For N, this reduction was 20% smaller in the stem-only harvest treatment and 40% higher when no N fertilizer was applied, when compared to other treatments. Stem-only harvest treatment was observed to reduce the loss of N, P, and S due to harvest by 300, 30, and 25 kg·ha−1, respectively, when compared to the whole-tree harvest + litter layer removal treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrient cycling; forest residue management; Eucalyptus; nitrogen; carbon; phosphorus; sulfur; minimum tillage nutrient cycling; forest residue management; Eucalyptus; nitrogen; carbon; phosphorus; sulfur; minimum tillage

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Menegale, M.L.; Rocha, J.H.T.; Harrison, R.; Goncalves, J.L.M.; Almeida, R.F.; Piccolo, M.D.C.; Hubner, A.; Arthur Junior, J.C.; De Vicente Ferraz, A.; James, J.N.; Michelsen-Correa, S. Effect of Timber Harvest Intensities and Fertilizer Application on Stocks of Soil C, N, P, and S. Forests 2016, 7, 319.

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