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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Low Frequency Variability on Climate and Carbon Fluxes in a Temperate Pine Forest in Eastern Canada

by 1 and 1,2,*
1
School of Geography & Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
2
McMaster Centre for Climate Change, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric J. Jokela
Forests 2015, 6(8), 2762-2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6082762
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Carbon, water and energy exchanges between forests and the atmosphere depend upon seasonal dynamics of both temperature and precipitation, which are influenced by low frequency climate oscillations such as: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), Eastern Pacific Oscillation (EPO) and the Pacific-North American (PNA). This study investigated the influence of climate oscillations on the local climate and carbon fluxes in a 75-year old temperate pine (Pinus strobus L.) forest, near Lake Erie in southern Ontario, Canada. Analyses indicated mean winter temperatures were correlated to NAO, AO and EPO, total winter precipitation was influenced by PNA and AO, while total snowfall was correlated with PNA and ENSO. These impacts influenced carbon dynamics of the forest during the winter and spring seasons. The EPO had a significant inverse correlation with winter and spring carbon fluxes, while the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) was significantly correlated with winter respiration. In 2012, an extreme warm event linked to climate oscillations raised temperatures and resulted in a large release of carbon from the forest due to higher ecosystem respiration. As low frequency climate oscillations are important drivers of extreme weather events, affecting their intensity, frequency and spatial patterns, they can cause large changes in carbon exchanges in forest ecosystems in the northeastern parts of North America. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate variability; low frequency climate signals; net ecosystem productivity; eddy covariance; Pinus strobes L.; temperature conifer forest climate variability; low frequency climate signals; net ecosystem productivity; eddy covariance; Pinus strobes L.; temperature conifer forest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thorne, R.; Arain, M.A. Influence of Low Frequency Variability on Climate and Carbon Fluxes in a Temperate Pine Forest in Eastern Canada. Forests 2015, 6, 2762-2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/f6082762

AMA Style

Thorne R, Arain MA. Influence of Low Frequency Variability on Climate and Carbon Fluxes in a Temperate Pine Forest in Eastern Canada. Forests. 2015; 6(8):2762-2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/f6082762

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thorne, Robin; Arain, M. A. 2015. "Influence of Low Frequency Variability on Climate and Carbon Fluxes in a Temperate Pine Forest in Eastern Canada" Forests 6, no. 8: 2762-2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/f6082762

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