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Open AccessArticle

Extent and Severity of Caliciopsis Canker in New England, USA: An Emerging Disease of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.)

NA State & Private Forestry, USDA Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA
School of Forest Resources, the University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
New Hampshire Department of Resources and Economic Development, New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands, 172 Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 03302, USA
Maine Forest Service, Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, 22 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, 105 Main Street, Durham, NH 03824, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jan Stenlid, Jonas Oliva and Audrius Menkis
Forests 2015, 6(11), 4360-4373;
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Caliciopsis canker is an emerging problem in Pinus growing regions of Eastern North America. The fungal disease caused by Caliciopsis pinea is associated with overstocked stands and poor sites, but few quantitative data are available. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess the extent and severity of Caliciopsis canker and to explore environmental variables associated with disease to identify areas at risk of damage. During 2014, 58 sites across New England with >75% P. strobus basal area in public lands were surveyed. Most sites (72%) had Caliciopsis canker signs or symptoms. Caliciopsis pinea was successfully identified with molecular techniques. In sites with Caliciopsis canker, 36% of the mature pines were symptomatic. Pole sized and suppressed trees were more likely to be damaged than larger trees with dominant crown positions (p < 0.05). Pinus strobus density for sites with Caliciopsis canker was 311 trees/ha (mean P. strobus stand diameter = 40 cm) compared to 220 trees/ha (mean white pine stand diameter = 43 cm) for sites without Caliciopsis canker (p = 0.1). Caliciopsis canker symptoms tended to appear more frequently in stands with excessively drained, coarse textured soils derived from glacial outwash (86%) or stands with poorly drained soils and low fertility (78%) than in stands with well drained, more fertile soils (59%) (p = 0.1). The severity of symptoms varied among soil groups and was greater for excessively drained, nutrient poor soils than for well-drained, more fertile soils (p = 0.027). View Full-Text
Keywords: Caliciopsis pinea; pine canker; pine pathogen; fungus; forest disease Caliciopsis pinea; pine canker; pine pathogen; fungus; forest disease
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Munck, I.A.; Livingston, W.; Lombard, K.; Luther, T.; Ostrofsky, W.D.; Weimer, J.; Wyka, S.; Broders, K. Extent and Severity of Caliciopsis Canker in New England, USA: An Emerging Disease of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.). Forests 2015, 6, 4360-4373.

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